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Crystal structure of the anthrax toxin protective antigen
Protective antigen (PA) is the central component of the three-part protein toxin secreted by Bacillus anthracis, the organism responsible for anthrax1. After proteolytic activation on the host cellExpand
Crystal structure of the anthrax lethal factor
Lethal factor (LF) is a protein (relative molecular mass 90,000) that is critical in the pathogenesis of anthrax. It is a highly specific protease that cleaves members of the mitogen-activatedExpand
Human furin is a calcium-dependent serine endoprotease that recognizes the sequence Arg-X-X-Arg and efficiently cleaves anthrax toxin protective antigen.
Previous work demonstrated that human furin is a predominantly Golgi membrane-localized endoprotease that can efficiently process precursor proteins at paired basic residues (-Lys-Arg- or -Arg-Arg-)Expand
Crystal structure of a complex between anthrax toxin and its host cell receptor
Anthrax toxin consists of the proteins protective antigen (PA), lethal factor (LF) and oedema factor (EF). The first step of toxin entry into host cells is the recognition by PA of a receptor on theExpand
Receptor palmitoylation and ubiquitination regulate anthrax toxin endocytosis
The anthrax toxin is composed of three independent polypeptide chains. Successful intoxication only occurs when heptamerization of the receptor-binding polypeptide, the protective antigen (PA),Expand
Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin induces TNF-alpha-independent hypoxia-mediated toxicity in mice.
Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin (LT) is the major virulence factor of anthrax and reproduces most of the laboratory manifestations of the disease in animals. We studied LT toxicity in BALB/cJ andExpand
Anthrax toxin triggers endocytosis of its receptor via a lipid raft–mediated clathrin-dependent process
The protective antigen (PA) of the anthrax toxin binds to a cell surface receptor and thereby allows lethal factor (LF) to be taken up and exert its toxic effect in the cytoplasm. Here, we reportExpand
Impairment of dendritic cells and adaptive immunity by anthrax lethal toxin
Anthrax poses a clear and present danger as an agent of biological terrorism. Infection with Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, if untreated can result in rampant bacteraemia,Expand
Proteolytic activation of bacterial toxins by eukaryotic cells is performed by furin and by additional cellular proteases.
Before intoxication can occur, anthrax toxin protective antigen (PA), Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE), and diphtheria toxin (DT) must be activated by proteolytic cleavage at specific amino acidExpand
Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin induces TNF-α–independent hypoxia-mediated toxicity in mice
Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin (LT) is the major virulence factor of anthrax and reproduces most of the laboratory manifestations of the disease in animals. We studied LT toxicity in BALB/cJ andExpand
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