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Mechanisms of pancreatic beta-cell death in type 1 and type 2 diabetes: many differences, few similarities.
Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are characterized by progressive beta-cell failure. Apoptosis is probably the main form of beta-cell death in both forms of the disease. It has been suggested that theExpand
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Low antioxidant enzyme gene expression in pancreatic islets compared with various other mouse tissues.
Using a sensitive Northern blot hybridization technique, gene expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase was studied in pancreatic islets and for comparison inExpand
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Relative importance of transport and alkylation for pancreatic beta-cell toxicity of streptozotocin
Aims/hypothesis. The role of selective uptake and alkylation in the diabetogenic action of streptozotocin was investigated in bioengineered RINm5F insulin-producing cells, with different expressionExpand
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Relation Between Antioxidant Enzyme Gene Expression and Antioxidative Defense Status of Insulin-Producing Cells
Antioxidant enzyme expression was determined in rat pancreatic islets and RINm5F insulin-producing cells on the level of mRNA, protein, and enzyme activity in comparison with 11 other rat tissues.Expand
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Oxidative stress: the vulnerable beta-cell.
  • S. Lenzen
  • Medicine, Chemistry
  • Biochemical Society transactions
  • 1 June 2008
Antioxidative defence mechanisms of pancreatic beta-cells are particularly weak and can be overwhelmed by redox imbalance arising from overproduction of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species.Expand
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Thiol-group reactivity, hydrophilicity and stability of alloxan, its reduction products and its N-methyl derivatives and a comparison with ninhydrin.
The diabetogenic agent, alloxan, is a hydrophilic and chemically unstable compound. The logarithm of the octanol/water partition coefficient of alloxan was found to be -1.86; its half-life at pH 7.4Expand
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Role of metabolically generated reactive oxygen species for lipotoxicity in pancreatic β‐cells
Chronically elevated concentrations of non‐esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) in type 2 diabetes may be involved in β‐cell dysfunction and apoptosis. It has been shown that long‐chain saturated NEFAsExpand
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The LEW.1AR1/Ztm-iddm rat: a new model of spontaneous insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
Abstract.Aims/hypothesis: We describe a new Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus rat model (LEW.1AR1/Ztm-iddm) which arose through a spontaneous mutation in a congenic Lewis rat strain with aExpand
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Protection of insulin-producing RINm5F cells against cytokine-mediated toxicity through overexpression of antioxidant enzymes.
Nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are crucial elements in cytokine-mediated beta-cell destruction. In insulin-producing RINm5F cells, overexpression of cytoprotective enzymesExpand
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Improvement of the mitochondrial antioxidant defense status prevents cytokine-induced nuclear factor-kappaB activation in insulin-producing cells.
Proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1beta [IL-1beta], tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-alpha], and gamma-interferon [IFN-gamma]) initiate a variety of signal cascades in pancreatic beta-cells thatExpand
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