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Host Recognition of Bacterial Muramyl Dipeptide Mediated through NOD2
NOD2, a protein associated with susceptibility to Crohn's disease, confers responsiveness to bacterial preparations of lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan, but the precise moiety recognized remainsExpand
An essential role for NOD1 in host recognition of bacterial peptidoglycan containing diaminopimelic acid
Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain protein 1 (NOD1) belongs to a family that includes multiple members with NOD and leucine-rich repeats in vertebrates and plants. NOD1 has been suggested toExpand
Virulence factors of Yersinia pestis are overcome by a strong lipopolysaccharide response
At mammalian body temperature, the plague bacillus Yersinia pestis synthesizes lipopolysaccharide (LPS)–lipid A with poor Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)–stimulating activity. To address the effect ofExpand
Toll-like receptor 4 imparts ligand-specific recognition of bacterial lipopolysaccharide.
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the main inducer of shock and death in Gram-negative sepsis. Recent evidence suggests that LPS-induced signal transduction begins with CD14-mediated activation of 1 orExpand
Lipid A antagonist, lipid IVa, is distinct from lipid A in interaction with Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-MD-2 and ligand-induced TLR4 oligomerization.
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and MD-2 recognizes lipid A, the active moiety of microbial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Little is known about mechanisms for LPS recognition by TLR4-MD-2. Here we showExpand
Monomeric and polymeric gram-negative peptidoglycan but not purified LPS stimulate the Drosophila IMD pathway.
Insects depend solely upon innate immune responses to survive infection. These responses include the activation of extracellular protease cascades, leading to melanization and clotting, andExpand
Lipopolysaccharide Interaction with Cell Surface Toll-like Receptor 4-MD-2
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are innate recognition molecules for microbial products, but their direct interactions with corresponding ligands remain unclarified. LPS, a membrane constituent ofExpand
Human MD-2 confers on mouse Toll-like receptor 4 species-specific lipopolysaccharide recognition.
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) recognizes lipopolysaccharide (LPS). MD-2 is associated with TLR4 and imparts LPS responsiveness to it. Little is known, however, as to whether MD-2 directly regulates LPSExpand
Human Peptidoglycan Recognition Protein-L Is an N-Acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine Amidase*
Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are pattern recognition molecules coded by up to 13 genes in insects and 4 genes in mammals. In insects PGRPs activate antimicrobial pathways in theExpand
Bacterial endotoxin: Chemical constitution, biological recognition, host response, and immunological detoxification.
The discovery of endotoxin dates from the late nineteenth century when Richard Pfeiffer, then working in Berlin, characterized endotoxins as heat-stable and cell-associated molecules (Westphal et al.Expand