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Brain-gut axis and its role in the control of food intake.
TLDR
The balance and interaction between anorexigenic and orexigenic factors originating from GIT appears to play an important role in short-term regulation of food intake and growth hormone release.
Stress and the gut: pathophysiology, clinical consequences, diagnostic approach and treatment options.
Stress, which is defined as an acute threat to homeostasis, shows both short- and long-term effects on the functions of the gastrointestinal tract. Exposure to stress results in alterations of the
Localization and biological activities of melatonin in intact and diseased gastrointestinal tract (GIT).
TLDR
This review focuses on the localization, production, metabolism and the functions of MT in GIT and the duodenal unit (liver, biliary routes and pancreas), where multi-step biosynthetic pathways of this indole, similar to those in pinealocytes, have been identified.
Neuro-hormonal control of food intake: basic mechanisms and clinical implications.
TLDR
Paraventricular and arcuate hypothalamic nuclei (ARC) are the sites where multiple hormones, released from the gut and adipose tissue, converge to regulate food intake and energy expenditure.
[Gastric secretion in Zollinger-Ellison syndrome].
Role of prostaglandins in gastroprotection and gastric adaptation.
TLDR
Gastric adaptation appears to be long-lasting phenomenon accompanied by increased resistance of the adapted mucosa to subsequent damage induced by corrosive agents, unlike short lived gastroprotection by PG, NO, CGRP, mild irritants or short ischemia.
Importance of brain-gut axis in the gastroprotection induced by gastric and remote preconditioning.
TLDR
It is concluded that brief ischemia in remote organs such as heart and liver protects gastric mucosa against gastric injury induced by I/R as effectively as gastric IP via mechanism involving both vagal and sensory nerves releasing vasodilatatory mediators such as CGRP.
Ghrelin-a new gastroprotective factor in gastric mucosa.
TLDR
It is concluded that ghrelin, whose mucosal expression is enhanced after exposure to ethanol, exhibits a strong gastroprotection, at least in part, due to its anti-inflammatory action mediated by prostaglandins.
Nitric oxide in pancreatic secretion and hormone-induced pancreatitis in rats
TLDR
It is concluded that NO is involved in the stimulation of pancreatic secretion in vivo and exhibits a beneficial effect on pancreatitis, probably by improving the pancreatic blood flow.
Ischemic preconditioning of remote organs attenuates gastric ischemia-reperfusion injury through involvement of prostaglandins and sensory nerves.
TLDR
It is concluded that brief ischemia of remote preconditioning such as heart or liver protects gastric mucosa against severe ischemIA-reperfusion-induced gastric lesions as effectively as local preconditionsing of the stomach itself.
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