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Decreased Glutamate Receptor 2 Expression and Enhanced Epileptogenesis in Immature Rat Hippocampus after Perinatal Hypoxia-Induced Seizures
The results indicate that susceptibility to hypoxia-induced seizures occurs during a developmental stage in which the expression of Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors is relatively high and an increased capacity for AMPA receptor-mediated epileptogenesis without inducing cell death. Expand
Cellular injury and neuroinflammation in children with chronic intractable epilepsy
The findings support the concept that immunomodulation targeting activated microglia and astrocytes may be a novel therapeutic strategy to reduce neurological morbidity and prevent intractable epilepsy. Expand
Role of Brain Inflammation in Epileptogenesis
Mounting evidence supports the hypothesis that inflammation may contribute to epileptogenesis and cause neuronal injury in epilepsy, particularly childhood epilepsy. Expand
Glial Activation Links Early‐Life Seizures and Long‐Term Neurologic Dysfunction: Evidence Using a Small Molecule Inhibitor of Proinflammatory Cytokine Upregulation
The hypothesis that early‐life seizures increase susceptibility to later neurologic injury by causing chronic glial activation is tested by examining both acute changes in proinflammatory cytokines and long‐term changes in astrocyte and microglial activation and astroCyte glutamate transporters in a “two‐hit” model of kainic acid (KA)‐induced seizures. Expand
Microarray analysis of postictal transcriptional regulation of neuropeptides
CST might play a neuroprotective role in immature rats, and its overexpression might prevent neuronal loss after seizure in adults, and suppression of tachykinin and corticotropin-releasing hormone might be effective in alleviating seizure-induced neuronal damage. Expand
Minocycline attenuates microglia activation and blocks the long-term epileptogenic effects of early-life seizures
The results suggest that anti-inflammatory therapy after KA-SE may be useful to block the epileptogenic process and mitigate the long-term damaging effects of early-life seizures. Expand
Neuroinflammatory targets and treatments for epilepsy validated in experimental models
The most recent preclinical proof‐of‐concept studies validating a number of therapeutic approaches against inflammatory mechanisms in animal models that could represent novel avenues for drug development in epilepsy are discussed. Expand
Immune mechanisms in epileptogenesis
The critical role of brain-resident immune mediators is highlighted and the proposed possible immune mechanisms that underlie epileptogenesis are proposed, including the interleukin-1 receptor/toll-like receptor signaling cascade, the pathways activated by damage-associated molecular patterns, and the cyclooxygenase-2/prostaglandin pathway. Expand
Environmental Enrichment Reverses the Impaired Exploratory Behavior and Altered Gene Expression Induced by Early-Life Seizures
Correlated with an improvement in behavior, genes involved in synaptic plasticity and memory consolidation, such as Arc, Homer1a, and Egr1, were significantly increased in rats exposed to environmental enrichment and provided an experimental basis for promoting enriching education programs for children with epilepsy. Expand
NBQX or Topiramate Treatment after Perinatal Hypoxia‐induced Seizures Prevents Later Increases in Seizure‐induced Neuronal Injury
Summary:  Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of NBQX (2,3‐dihydroxy‐6‐nitro‐7‐sulfamoylbenzo(f) quinoxaline‐2,3‐dione) and topiramate (TPM) given after hypoxia‐induced seizures in preventing theExpand