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Comparative structural analysis of eukaryotic flagella and cilia from Chlamydomonas, Tetrahymena, and sea urchins.
High-frequency nanometre-scale vibration in 'quiescent' flagellar axonemes
The detection of high frequency vibration of sub-nanometre ampli-tude in non-beating flagellar axonemes could reflect the movement of individual activated dynein arms.
Kinesin-binding–triggered conformation switching of microtubules contributes to polarized transport
X-ray fiber diffraction, fluorescence speckle microscopy, and second-harmonic generation microscopy collectively demonstrated that the binding of nucleotide-free kinesin-1 to GDP microtubules changes the conformation of the GDP micro Tubule to a conformation resembling the GTP microtubule.
Asymmetric Mandibles of Water‐Scavenger Larvae Improve Feeding Effectiveness on Right‐Handed Snails
It is usually difficult to obtain direct evidence indicating how any particular asymmetric structure has any ecological significance or how the morphological chirality is related to the interspecies interaction with other animals.
FRAP analysis of molecular diffusion inside sea-urchin spermatozoa
The rate of ATP diffusion inside spermatozoa was high enough to support the continuous motility of sea-urchin sperm flagella if the creatine shuttle system is working, and small molecules such as calcein can move beyond the boundary between the head and the flagellum.
Direct measurement of the force of microtubule sliding in flagella
By attaching glass microneedles to axonemes and directly determined the sliding force at various ATP concentrations, the mechanochemical basis of this force-generating reaction and to correlate it with the overt motile behaviour of cilia or flagella are understood.
High-frequency vibration in flagellar axonemes with amplitudes reflecting the size of tubulin
Flagellar axonemes of sea urchin sperm display high-frequency vibration with nanometer-scale amplitudes in the presence of ATP, and a two-dimensional photo-sensor was used to characterize this phenomenon in detail, revealing new features that suggested that the outer doublet can be regarded as a stiff rod in vibrating axons.
Influence of social dominance and female odor on the sperm activity of male mice
Reactivation of sea-urchin sperm flagella induced by rapid photolysis of caged ATP.
The reactivation of sea-urchin sperm flagella in a state of rigor were reactivated by rapid photolysis of caged ATP, suggesting that the site-specific activity of dyneins along the length of the axoneme is preserved even during rigor states when ATP is absent and that regulation of the activity can be restarted immediately with a new cycle of ATP turnover.
Tubulin protofilaments and kinesin-dependent motility
This work followed the motion of kinesin-coated microbeads on sea-urchin sperm flagella, from the flagellar outer doublet microtubules to the singlet microtubule tips extending from the A-tubules, and suggested that in principle a single protofilament can produce movement, even when its neighbors cannot.