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Opioids excite dopamine neurons by hyperpolarization of local interneurons
Increased activity of dopamine-containing neurons in the ventral tegmental area is necessary for the reinforcing effects of opioids and other abused drugs. Intracellular recordings from these cellsExpand
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Two types of neurone in the rat ventral tegmental area and their synaptic inputs.
1. Intracellular recordings were made from 241 ventral tegmental neurones in slices of rat midbrain. Seventy‐seven per cent of neurones were hyperpolarized by dopamine (principal cells); 16% wereExpand
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Burst firing in dopamine neurons induced by N-methyl-D-aspartate: role of electrogenic sodium pump.
Dopamine-containing neurons of the mammalian midbrain are required for normal behavior and movements. In vivo they fire action potentials in bursts, but in vitro they discharge regularly spacedExpand
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Identification of a chromosome 3p14.3-21.1 gene, APPL, encoding an adaptor molecule that interacts with the oncoprotein-serine/threonine kinase AKT2
AKT2 is a serine/threonine kinase implicated in human ovarian and pancreatic cancers. AKT2 is activated by a variety of growth factors and insulin via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). However,Expand
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Synaptic inputs to GABAA and GABAB receptors originate from discrete afferent neurons
gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) inhibits neurons by acting at GABAA and GABAB receptors but it is not known whether the two receptors are associated with discretely separate afferent inputs or whetherExpand
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5-hydroxytryptamine1B receptors block the GABAB synaptic potential in rat dopamine neurons
Intracellular recordings were made from presumed dopamine-containing neurons in slices cut from the midbrain of the rat. Focal electrical stimulation produced a hyperpolarizing synaptic potentialExpand
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Evaluation of Levodopa Dose and Magnitude of Dopamine Depletion as Risk Factors for Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesia in a Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease
Levodopa dose and severity of Parkinson's disease (PD) are recognized risk factors for levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) in humans. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the ability ofExpand
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Gene expression patterns in ovarian carcinomas.
We used DNA microarrays to characterize the global gene expression patterns in surface epithelial cancers of the ovary. We identified groups of genes that distinguished the clear cell subtype fromExpand
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GDNF acutely modulates excitability and A-type K+ channels in midbrain dopaminergic neurons
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) prevents lesion-induced death of midbrain dopaminergic neurons, but its function in normal brain remains uncertain. Here we show that GDNF acutelyExpand
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Excitatory effects of dopamine on subthalamic nucleus neurons: in vitro study of rats pretreated with 6-hydroxydopamine and levodopa
Increased output from the subthalamic nucleus (STN) following chronic dopamine depletion has been linked to the rigidity and tremor seen in Parkinson's disease (PD). We used extracellularExpand
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