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PCR DIAGNOSTICS UNDERESTIMATE THE PREVALENCE OF AVIAN MALARIA (PLASMODIUM RELICTUM) IN EXPERIMENTALLY-INFECTED PASSERINES
TLDR
Circulating parasites in chronically infected birds either disappear completely from circulation or to drop to intensities below detectability by nested PCR, suggesting the use of PCR as a sole means of detection of circulating parasites may significantly underestimate true prevalence. Expand
Natural selection of the major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) in Hawaiian honeycreepers (Drepanidinae)
TLDR
The notion that balancing selection operates at the Mhc in the honeycreepers is supported by transpecies polymorphism and strikingly high dN/dS ratios at codons putatively involved in peptide interaction. Expand
Experimental Evidence for Evolved Tolerance to Avian Malaria in a Wild Population of Low Elevation Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi (Hemignathus virens)
TLDR
Emergence of this population of Hawai’i ‘Amakihi (Hemignathus virens) provides an exceptional opportunity for determining physiological mechanisms and genetic markers associated with malaria tolerance that can be used to evaluate whether other, more threatened species have the capacity to adapt to this disease. Expand
Detection of avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.) in native land birds of American Samoa
TLDR
High prevalence of apparently chronic infections, the relative stability of the native land birdcommunities, and the presence of mosquitovectors which are considered endemic andcapable of transmitting avian Plasmodia, suggest that these parasites are indigenous to Samoa and have a long coevolutionary history with their hosts. Expand
Identification, inheritance, and linkage of B-G-like and MHC class I genes in cranes.
TLDR
The concept of a long-term association of polymorphic B-G-like genes with the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is supported and SSCP is established as a means for evaluating MHC genetic variability in cranes. Expand
Taqman Real-Time PCR Detects Avipoxvirus DNA in Blood of Hawaìi `Amakihi (Hemignathus virens)
TLDR
A nested TaqMan Real-Time PCR method is presented for the detection of the Avipoxvirus 4b core protein gene in archived blood samples from Hawaiian birds and it is anticipated that this method will become an important and useful tool in global studies of the epidemiology of Avip Oxvirus. Expand
Quantitative PCR estimates Angiostrongylus cantonensis (rat lungworm) infection levels in semi-slugs (Parmarion martensi).
TLDR
A quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay is reported that provides a reliable, relative measure of parasite load in intermediate hosts and provides a new tool for quantification of larvae from intermediate hosts, and potentially from other sources as well. Expand
Protective efficacy of a recombinant subunit West Nile virus vaccine in domestic geese (Anser anser).
TLDR
ELISA and plaque reduction neutralization tests demonstrate that significant levels of vaccine antigen-specific antibody were produced in groups of birds vaccinated with 5 or 10 microg of the WN-80E antigen formulated with ISA720 adjuvant. Expand
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