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The West African Monsoon Dynamics. Part II: The ''Preonset'' and ''Onset'' of the Summer Monsoon
The arrival of the summer monsoon over West Africa has been documented by using daily gridded rainfall data and NCEP‐NCAR reanalyses during the period 1968‐90, and OLR data over the period 1979‐90.Expand
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Abrupt shift of the ITCZ over West Africa and intra‐seasonal variability
The onset of the monsoon system over West Africa is linked to the northward migration of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) during the northern spring and summer. By using daily griddedExpand
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Easterly wave regimes and associated convection over West Africa and tropical Atlantic: results from the NCEP/NCAR and ECMWF reanalyses
Abstract NCEP/NCAR and ECMWF daily reanalyses are used to investigate the synoptic variability of easterly waves over West Africa and tropical Atlantic at 700 hPa in northern summer between 1979–1995Expand
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Seasonality and atmospheric dynamics of the teleconnection between African rainfall and tropical sea‐surface temperature: Atlantic vs. ENSO
A 47-year record (1951-1997) of gridded data covering Africa south of the Sahara was used to document the spatial and seasonal patterns of the correlation between precipitation and sea-surfaceExpand
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Sahel rainfall and decadal to multi-decadal sea surface temperature variability
Decadal Sahelian rainfall variability was mainly driven by sea surface temperatures (SSTs) during the twentieth century. At the same time SSTs showed a marked long-term global warming (GW) trend.Expand
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Seasonal evolution of the West African heat low: a climatological perspective
The West African heat low (WAHL), a region of high surface temperatures and low surface pressures, is a key element of the West African monsoon system. In this study, we propose a method to detectExpand
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Summer Sahel-ENSO teleconnection and decadal time scale SST variations
Abstract The correlation between Sahel rainfall and El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the northern summer has been varying for the last fifty years. We propose that the existence of periods ofExpand
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Sea Surface Temperature Fields Associated with West African Rainfall Anomaly Types
Abstract Four West African rainfall anomaly types are defined in relation to the northern summer rainfall departure signs in the Sahel and in the Guinean region in order to investigate theExpand
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Climate Drives the Meningitis Epidemics Onset in West Africa
Background Every year West African countries within the Sahelo-Sudanian band are afflicted with major meningococcal meningitis (MCM) disease outbreaks, which affect up to 200,000 people, mainly youngExpand
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Regional climate modelling of the 2006 West African monsoon: sensitivity to convection and planetary boundary layer parameterisation using WRF
Regional climate model (RCM) is a valuable scientific tool to address the mechanisms of regional atmospheric systems such as the West African monsoon (WAM). This study aims to improve ourExpand
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