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Hemodynamic shear stress and its role in atherosclerosis.
Atherosclerosis, the leading cause of death in the developed world and nearly the leading cause in the developing world, is associated with systemic risk factors including hypertension, smoking,Expand
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Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition contributes to cardiac fibrosis
Cardiac fibrosis, associated with a decreased extent of microvasculature and with disruption of normal myocardial structures, results from excessive deposition of extracellular matrix, which isExpand
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The cardiac homeobox gene Csx/Nkx2.5 lies genetically upstream of multiple genes essential for heart development.
Csx/Nkx2.5 is a vertebrate homeobox gene with a sequence homology to the Drosophila tinman, which is required for the dorsal mesoderm specification. Recently, heterozygous mutations of this gene wereExpand
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The conserved phosphoinositide 3‐kinase pathway determines heart size in mice
Phosphoinositide 3‐kinase (PI3K) has been shown to regulate cell and organ size in Drosophila, but the role of PI3K in vertebrates in vivo is not well understood. To examine the role of PI3K inExpand
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Molecular characterization of angiotensin II--induced hypertrophy of cardiac myocytes and hyperplasia of cardiac fibroblasts. Critical role of the AT1 receptor subtype.
Increasing evidence suggests that angiotensin II (Ang II) may act as a growth factor for the heart. However, direct effects of Ang II on mammalian cardiac cells (myocytes and nonmyocytes),Expand
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Autocrine release of angiotensin II mediates stretch-induced hypertrophy of cardiac myocytes in vitro
Hypertrophy is a fundamental adaptive process employed by postmitotic cardiac and skeletal muscle in response to mechanical load. How muscle cells convert mechanical stimuli into growth signals hasExpand
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The cellular and molecular response of cardiac myocytes to mechanical stress.
External load plays a critical role in determining muscle mass and its phenotype in cardiac myocytes. Cardiac myocytes have the ability to sense mechanical stretch and convert it into intracellularExpand
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FOG-2, a Cofactor for GATA Transcription Factors, Is Essential for Heart Morphogenesis and Development of Coronary Vessels from Epicardium
We disrupted the FOG-2 gene in mice to define its requirement in vivo. FOG-2(-/-) embryos die at midgestation with a cardiac defect characterized by a thin ventricular myocardium, commonExpand
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Phosphoinositide 3-kinase(p110α) plays a critical role for the induction of physiological, but not pathological, cardiac hypertrophy
An unresolved question in cardiac biology is whether distinct signaling pathways are responsible for the development of pathological and physiological cardiac hypertrophy in the adult. PhysiologicalExpand
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Apoptosis: basic mechanisms and implications for cardiovascular disease.
Since Kerr et al1 in 1972 coined the term “apoptosis” for a morphologically distinct mode of cell death, this concept of cell suicide has gained increasing interest in cytology and pathology. InExpand
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