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Mortality in the Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Era: Changing Causes of Death and Disease in the HIV Outpatient Study
- F. Palella, R. Baker, S. Holmberg
- MedicineJournal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes
- 1 September 2006
Although overall death rates remained low through 2004, the proportion of deaths attributable to non- AIDS diseases increased and prominently included hepatic, cardiovascular, and pulmonary diseases, as well as non-AIDS malignancies.
Declining morbidity and mortality among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. HIV Outpatient Study Investigators.
The recent declines in morbidity and mortality due to AIDS are attributable to the use of more intensive antiretroviral therapies.
Incidence of types of cancer among HIV-infected persons compared with the general population in the United States, 1992-2003.
The incidence of many types of non-AIDS-defining cancer was higher among HIV-infected persons than among the general population from 1992 to 2003, and lower ascertainment of cancer in the HIV cohorts may result in a potential bias to underestimate rate disparities.
The estimated prevalence and incidence of HIV in 96 large US metropolitan areas.
- S. Holmberg
- MedicineAmerican journal of public health
- 1 May 1996
Relatively high prevalences of HIV in at-risk heterosexual persons in several cities indicate the potential for an increase in transmission among them, and the size and direction of the human immunodeficiency virus epidemic in US metropolitan statistical areas with populations greater than 500,000 is estimated.
Epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus-associated opportunistic infections in the United States in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
- J. Kaplan, D. Hanson, J. Jones
- Medicine, BiologyClinical infectious diseases : an official…
- 1 April 2000
The incidence of nearly all AIDS-defining opportunistic infections (OIs) decreased significantly in the United States during 1992-1998; decreases in the most common OIs were more pronounced in 1996-1998, during which time highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was introduced into medical care.
Efficacy of a brief case management intervention to link recently diagnosed HIV-infected persons to care
A brief intervention by a case manager was associated with a significantly higher rate of successful linkage to HIV care and the cost of such case management was estimated to be US$ 600–1200 per client.
Toward a more accurate estimate of the prevalence of hepatitis C in the United States
The number of US residents who have been infected with hepatitis C is unknown but is probably at least 4.6 million, although additional sources of potential underestimation suggest that the true prevalence could well be higher.
Emerging epidemic of hepatitis C virus infections among young nonurban persons who inject drugs in the United States, 2006-2012.
- A. Suryaprasad, Jianglan Z. White, S. Holmberg
- MedicineClinical infectious diseases : an official…
- 11 August 2014
These data indicate an emerging US epidemic of HCV infection among young nonurban persons of predominantly white race, which was higher in 2012 than 2006 in at least 30 states, with largest increases in nonurban counties east of the Mississippi River.
The Increasing Burden of Mortality From Viral Hepatitis in the United States Between 1999 and 2007
- K. Ly, J. Xing, R. Klevens, R. Jiles, J. Ward, S. Holmberg
- MedicineAnnals of Internal Medicine
- 21 February 2012
By 2007, HCV had superseded HIV as a cause of death in the United States, and deaths from HCV and HBV disproportionately occurred in middle-aged persons, requiring new policy initiatives to detect patients with chronic hepatitis and link them to care and treatment.
Intersecting epidemics--crack cocaine use and HIV infection among inner-city young adults. Multicenter Crack Cocaine and HIV Infection Study Team.
In poor, inner-city communities young smokers of crack cocaine, particularly women who have sex in exchange for money or drugs, are at high risk for HIV infection.