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A genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land
BackgroundThe timescale of prokaryote evolution has been difficult to reconstruct because of a limited fossil record and complexities associated with molecular clocks and deep divergences. However,Expand
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Molecular Evidence for the Early Colonization of Land by Fungi and Plants
The colonization of land by eukaryotes probably was facilitated by a partnership (symbiosis) between a photosynthesizing organism (phototroph) and a fungus. However, the time when colonizationExpand
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A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life
BackgroundThe pattern and timing of the rise in complex multicellular life during Earth's history has not been established. Great disparity persists between the pattern suggested by the fossil recordExpand
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Molecular evidence for multiple origins of Insectivora and for a new order of endemic African insectivore mammals.
The traditional views regarding the mammalian order Insectivora are that the group descended from a single common ancestor and that it is comprised of the following families: Soricidae (shrews),Expand
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Calibration of avian molecular clocks.
Molecular clocks can be calibrated using fossils within the group under study (internal calibration) or outside of the group (external calibration). Both types of calibration have their advantagesExpand
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Molecular phylogeny and divergence times of deuterostome animals.
The phylogenetic relationships among deuterostome animals have been debated for many years, and a diversity of hypotheses have been proposed based on both morphological and molecular data. Here weExpand
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The Impact of Conservation on the Status of the World’s Vertebrates
Assessing Biodiversity Declines Understanding human impact on biodiversity depends on sound quantitative projection. Pereira et al. (p. 1496, published online 26 October) review quantitativeExpand
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Phylogenetic relationships of amphibian families inferred from DNA sequences of mitochondrial 12S and 16S ribosomal RNA genes.
Nucleotide sequence comparisons were used to investigate ordinal and familial relationships within the class Amphibia. Approximately 850 base pairs of the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) geneExpand
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The number of replications needed for accurate estimation of the bootstrap P value in phylogenetic studies.
  • S. Hedges
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Molecular biology and evolution
  • 1 March 1992
The bootstrap is a statistical method for obtaining a nonparametric estimate of error (Efron 1979, 1982). Felsenstein ( 1985) was the first to apply this method to phylogeny estimation, and hisExpand
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The colonization of land by animals: molecular phylogeny and divergence times among arthropods
BackgroundThe earliest fossil evidence of terrestrial animal activity is from the Ordovician, ~450 million years ago (Ma). However, there are earlier animal fossils, and most molecular clocks suggestExpand
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