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Symbol grounding problem
- S. Harnad
- Computer ScienceScholarpedia
- 1 June 1991
The "symbol grounding problem" is described and connectionism can be seen as a complementary component in a hybrid nonsymbolic/symbolic model of the mind, rather than a rival to purely symbolic modeling.
The Symbol Grounding Problem
- S. Harnad
- Computer ScienceArXiv
- 15 January 2006
The Symbol Grounding Problem is related to the problem of how words get their meanings, and of what meanings are, and to theproblem of consciousness, or how it is that mental states are meaningful.
Categorical Perception: The Groundwork of Cognition
- S. Harnad
- 27 July 1990
List of contributors Preface Introduction: psychophysical and cognitive aspects of categorical perception: a critical overview S. Harnad Part I. Psychophysical Foundations of Categorical Perception:…
Self-Selected or Mandated, Open Access Increases Citation Impact for Higher Quality Research
The OA advantage is greater for the more citable articles, not because of a quality bias from authors self-selecting what to make OA, but because ofA quality advantage, from users self- selecting what to use and cite, freed by OA from the constraints of selective accessibility to subscribers only.
Comparing the Impact of Open Access (OA) vs. Non-OA Articles in the Same Journals
Comparing the citation counts of individual OA and non-OA articles appearing in the same (non-OA) journals is revealing dramatic citation advantages for OA.
Ten-Year Cross-Disciplinary Comparison of the Growth of Open Access and How it Increases Research Citation Impact
- Chawki Hajjem, S. Harnad, Y. Gingras
- Psychology, Computer ScienceIEEE Data Eng. Bull.
- 1 December 2005
A robot is designed that trawls the Web for full-texts using reference metadata and citation data from the Institute for Scientific Information database and it is unlikely that the OA citation advantage is merely or mostly a self-selection bias (for making only one's better articles OA).
The Access/Impact Problem and the Green and Gold Roads to Open Access☆
The Access/Impact Problem and the Green and Gold Roads to Open Access: An Update
Earlier Web Usage Statistics as Predictors of Later Citation Impact
This paper analyses how short-term Web usage impact predicts medium-term citation impact and uses the physics e-print archive -- arXiv.org -- to test this.