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A framework of mental toughness in the world's best performers.
Publisher's PDF made available in accordance with the publisher's self-archiving policy [as at July 2013]
The development and maintenance of mental toughness: Perceptions of elite performers
It was reported that once mental toughness had been developed, three perceived underlying mechanisms were required to maintain this construct: a desire and motivation to succeed that was insatiable and internalized, a support network that included sporting and non-sporting personnel, and effective use of basic and advanced psychological skills. Expand
The Development and Maintenance of Mental Toughness in the World’s Best Performers
Eleven superelite participants (7 performers, 2 coaches and 2 sport psychologists) were interviewed regarding the development and maintenance of mental toughness. Findings revealed that this processExpand
Stress in elite sport performers: A comparative study of competitive and organizational stressors
The findings indicate that elite athletes experience and recall more demands associated primarily and directly with the sport organization than with competitive performance. Expand
The concept of mental toughness: tests of dimensionality, nomological network, and traitness.
The results of these studies revealed that mental toughness may be best conceptualized as a unidimensional rather than a multidimensional concept; plays an important role in performance, goal progress, and thriving despite stress; and can vary and have enduring properties across situations and time. Expand
The Acquisition and Development of Cognitive Skills and Strategies: I. Making the Butterflies Fly in Formation
This study presents the first in a series of two articles extending previous findings that elite performers, compared to nonelite performers, interpret their preperformance cognitive and somaticExpand
Pre-competitive feeling states and directional anxiety interpretations
The findings supported the general hypothesis that ‘facilitators’ report significantly more positive feelings than ‘debilitator’, and revealed individual differences in the combination of feeling states experienced by performers during competition. Expand
Reflective practice and the origins of elite coaching knowledge
This study examines the origins of elite coaching knowledge and the use of this knowledge in the construction of progressions in men's artistic gymnastics. The focus of the current study was first toExpand
Sources of Organizational Stress in Elite Sports Performers
This study extends recent research investigating organizational stress in elite sport. Fourteen international performers (7 men and 7 women) from a wide range of sports were interviewed with regardExpand
The Effects of a Multimodal Intervention Program on Performers: II. Training the Butterflies to Fly in Formation
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a multimodal intervention on swimmers debilitated by anxiety. A staggered single-subject multiple-baseline across-subjects design was used overExpand