• Publications
  • Influence
Alternative activation of macrophages
  • S. Gordon
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Nature Reviews Immunology
  • 2003
The evidence in favour of alternative macrophage activation by the TH2-type cytokines interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13 is assessed, and its limits and relevance to a range of immune and inflammatory conditions are defined. Expand
Monocyte and macrophage heterogeneity
Recent studies have shown that monocyte heterogeneity is conserved in humans and mice, allowing dissection of its functional relevance: the different monocyte subsets seem to reflect developmental stages with distinct physiological roles, such as recruitment to inflammatory lesions or entry to normal tissues. Expand
The M1 and M2 paradigm of macrophage activation: time for reassessment
How cytokines and pathogen signals influence macrophages' functional phenotypes and the evidence for M1 and M2 functions is assessed and a paradigm initially based on the role of a restricted set of selected ligands in the immune response is revisited. Expand
Alternative activation of macrophages: an immunologic functional perspective.
The cellular sources of these cytokines, receptor signaling pathways, and induced markers and gene signatures are reviewed and the concept of macrophage activation in the context of the immune response is revisit. Expand
Macrophage activation and polarization: nomenclature and experimental guidelines.
A set of standards encompassing three principles-the source of macrophages, definition of the activators, and a consensus collection of markers to describe macrophage activation are described with the goal of unifying experimental standards for diverse experimental scenarios. Expand
Interleukin 4 potently enhances murine macrophage mannose receptor activity: a marker of alternative immunologic macrophage activation
Recombinant murine IL-4 is established as a potent and selective enhancer of murine MMR activity in vitro and induces inflammatory macrophages to adopt an alternative activation phenotype, distinct from that induced by IFN-gamma. Expand
Transcriptional Profiling of the Human Monocyte-to-Macrophage Differentiation and Polarization: New Molecules and Patterns of Gene Expression1
Transcriptome profiling reveals novel molecules and signatures associated with human monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation and polarized activation which may represent candidate targets in pathophysiology. Expand
Alternative activation of macrophages: mechanism and functions.
The concept of an alternative pathway of macrophage activation has stimulated interest in its definition, mechanism, and functional significance in homeostasis and disease. We assess recent researchExpand
F4/80, a monoclonal antibody directed specifically against the mouse macrophage
Immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that the antigen F4/80 is part of a component of Mr 160000 which is synthesized by the MΦ and, at least in part, exposed on the cell surface. Expand
Heterogeneity in the distribution and morphology of microglia in the normal adult mouse brain
Examination of the distribution of microglia in the normal adult mouse brain using immunocytochemical detection of the macrophage specific plasma membrane glycoprotein F4/80 found no evidence of monocyte-like cells in the adult CNS. Expand