Statistical tests, P values, confidence intervals, and power: a guide to misinterpretations
Misinterpretation and abuse of statistical tests, confidence intervals, and statistical power have been decried for decades, yet remain rampant. A key problem is that there are no interpretations of…
Inactivation of the DNA-repair gene MGMT and the clinical response of gliomas to alkylating agents.
Methylation of the MGMT promoter in gliomas is a useful predictor of the responsiveness of the tumors to alkylating agents and an independent and stronger prognostic factor than age, stage, tumor grade, or performance status.
Circulating mutant DNA to assess tumor dynamics
It is found that ctDNA measurements could be used to reliably monitor tumor dynamics in subjects with cancer who were undergoing surgery or chemotherapy, and it is suggested that this personalized genetic approach could be generally applied to individuals with other types of cancer.
Toward Evidence-Based Medical Statistics. 1: The P Value Fallacy
- S. Goodman
- MedicineAnnals of Internal Medicine
- 15 June 1999
The historical and logical foundations of the dominant school of medical statistics, sometimes referred to as frequentist statistics, are explored and the logical fallacy at the heart of this system is explicated, which maintains such a tenacious hold on the minds of investigators, policymakers, and journal editors.
Very high risk of cancer in familial Peutz-Jeghers syndrome.
Patients with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome are at very high relative and absolute risk for gastrointestinal and nongastrointestinal cancers.
Detection and quantification of mutations in the plasma of patients with colorectal tumors.
- F. Diehl, M. Li, B. Vogelstein
- Biology, MedicineProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
- 8 November 2005
Patients with advanced colorectal cancers consistently contained mutant adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) DNA molecules in their plasma, which has implications for the mechanisms through which tumor DNA is released into the circulation and for diagnostic tests based on this phenomenon.
Some practical improvements in the continual reassessment method for phase I studies.
Modifications to the Continual Reassessment Method (CRM) are presented, in which one assigns more than one subject at a time to each dose level, and each dose increase is limited to one level, which makes the CRM acceptable to clinical investigators.
A dirty dozen: twelve p-value misconceptions.
- S. Goodman
- PhilosophySeminars in hematology (Print)
- 1 July 2008
This commentary reviews a dozen of common misinterpretations of the P value and contrasts it with its Bayesian counterpart, the Bayes' factor, which has virtually all of the desirable properties of an evidential measure that the Pvalue lacks, most notably interpretability.
Tumor-suppressive pathways in pancreatic carcinoma.
This type of multigenic analysis in human tumors may serve to substantiate experimental tumor models and thus increase the understanding of the truly physiologically relevant tumor-suppressive pathways that are abrogated during human tumorigenesis.
What does research reproducibility mean?
An array of explicit and implicit definitions of reproducibility and related terminology are reviewed, and how to avoid potential misunderstandings when these terms are used as a surrogate for “truth” is discussed.