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The physical environment of Kongsfjorden–Krossfjorden, an Arctic fjord system in Svalbard
Kongsfjorden-Krossfjorden and the adjacent West Spitsbergen Shelf meet at the common mouth of the two fjord arms. This paper presents our most up-to-date information about the physical environment ofExpand
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Sea-ice mass-balance monitoring in an Arctic fjord
Abstract A sea-ice mass-balance monitoring study including ice extent and thickness observations was started at Kongsfjorden (79˚N, 12˚E), Svalbard, in 2003. The inner part of Kongsfjorden is usuallyExpand
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A modern concept for autonomous and continuous measurements of spectral albedo and transmittance of sea ice
Abstract Time series of irradiance data measured on sea ice with high temporal and spectral resolution are needed for advancing studies of atmosphere–ice–ocean interaction during different seasons.Expand
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Black carbon in the atmosphere and snow, from pre-industrial times until present
The distribution of black carbon (BC) in the at- mosphere and the deposition of BC on snow surfaces since pre-industrial time until present are modelled with the Oslo CTM2 model. The model resultsExpand
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Variability of fast-ice thickness in Spitsbergen fjords
Abstract Detailed measurements of Sea-ice thickness and Snow on Sea ice were recorded at different locations in fjords along the western coast of Spitsbergen, the largest island in the SvalbardExpand
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Physical properties, spectral reflectance and thickness development of first year fast ice in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard
A ground truth study was performed on first year fast ice in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, during spring 1997 and 1998. The survey included sea ice thickness monitoring as well as observation of surfaceExpand
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Physical and optical properties of snow covering Arctic tundra on Svalbard
Snow thickness, duration of snow coverage and amount of ice covering the soil are crucial for the development of biota in the Arctic tundra environment. The snow thickness and optical propertiesExpand
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Thickness and density of snow-covered sea ice and hydrostatic equilibrium assumption from in situ measurements in Fram Strait, the Barents Sea and the Svalbard coast
Abstract Modern satellite measurements of sea-ice thickness are based on altimeter measurements of the difference in elevation between the snow or ice surface and the local sea surface. For retrievalExpand
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Evidence of Arctic sea ice thinning from direct observations
The Arctic sea ice cover is rapidly shrinking, but a direct, longer-term assessment of the ice thinning remains challenging. A new time series constructed from in situ measurements of sea iceExpand
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Photogrammetric retrieval and analysis of small scale sea ice topography during summer melt
Abstract The paper presents a setup for photogrammetric retrievals of small scale sea ice surface topography using low-altitude aerial imagery. The setup features two digital cameras, a combined GPSExpand
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