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Spinal and supraspinal factors in human muscle fatigue.
  • S. Gandevia
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Physiological reviews
  • 10 January 2001
Evidence for "central" fatigue and the neural mechanisms underlying it are reviewed, together with its terminology and the methods used to reveal it. Expand
Supraspinal factors in human muscle fatigue: evidence for suboptimal output from the motor cortex.
It is argued that inadequate neural drive effectively ‘upstream’ of the motor cortex must be one site involved in the genesis of central fatigue as well as fatigue‐induced changes in EMG responses to magnetic cortical stimulation recovered rapidly despite maintained ischaemia. Expand
The proprioceptive senses: their roles in signaling body shape, body position and movement, and muscle force.
Proprioceptive senses, particularly of limb position and movement, deteriorate with age and are associated with an increased risk of falls in the elderly and the more recent information available on proprioception has given a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying these senses. Expand
Measurement of voluntary activation of fresh and fatigued human muscles using transcranial magnetic stimulation
It is concluded that TMS can quantify voluntary activation for fresh or fatigued muscles at forces of 50–100 % maximum and reveals when extra output is available from the motor cortex to increase force, and it elicits force from all relevant synergist muscles. Expand
Task‐dependent reflex responses and movement illusions evoked by galvanic vestibular stimulation in standing humans.
There were no vestibular‐evoked responses when seated subjects made voluntary contractions of the leg muscles or when they stood upright with the trunk supported, using the ankles to balance a body‐like load. Expand
Measurement of muscle contraction with ultrasound imaging
Architectural parameters of several human muscles were measured during isometric contractions of from 0 to 100% maximal voluntary contraction to investigate the ability of ultrasonography to estimate muscle activity. Expand
Contralateral effects of unilateral strength training: evidence and possible mechanisms.
The size of the contralateral strength training effect is approximately 8% of initial strength or about half the increase in strength of the trained side, which is similar to results of a large, randomized controlled study of training for the elbow flexors. Expand
A comparison of central aspects of fatigue in submaximal and maximal voluntary contractions.
The best indication that central fatigue is important during submaximal tasks is the disproportionate increase in subjects' perceived effort when maintaining a low target force. Expand
The effect of sustained low‐intensity contractions on supraspinal fatigue in human elbow flexor muscles
Although caused by a low‐force contraction, both the peripheral and central fatigue impaired the production of maximal voluntary force, and some of this impairment of the subjects' ability to drive the muscle maximally was due to suboptimal output from the motor cortex. Expand
Changes in segmental and motor cortical output with contralateral muscle contractions and altered sensory inputs in humans.
The data suggest that a unilateral voluntary muscle contraction has contralateral effects at both cortical and segmental levels and that the segmental effects are not replicated by stimulated muscle contraction or by input from muscle spindles or non-nociceptive cutaneous afferents. Expand