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Ammonia toxicity, tolerance, and excretion
Ammonia is an unusual toxicant in that it is produced by, as well as being poisonous to, animals. In aqueous solution ammonia has two species, NH3 and NH4+, total ammonia is the sum of [NH3] + [NH4+]Expand
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Ammonia Production, Excretion, Toxicity, and Defense in Fish: A Review
Many fishes are ammonotelic but some species can detoxify ammonia to glutamine or urea. Certain fish species can accumulate high levels of ammonia in the brain or defense against ammonia toxicity byExpand
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  • Open Access
The mudskipper, Periophthalmodon schlosseri, actively transports[Formula: see text] against a concentration gradient.
Periophthalmodon schlosseri can maintain ammonia excretion rates and low levels of ammonia in its tissues when exposed to 8 and 30 mM NH4Cl, but tissue ammonia levels rise when the fish is exposed toExpand
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The mudskipper, Periophthalmodon schlosseri, actively transports NH4+ against a concentration gradient.
Periophthalmodon schlosseri can maintain ammonia excretion rates and low levels of ammonia in its tissues when exposed to 8 and 30 mM NH4Cl, but tissue ammonia levels rise when the fish is exposed toExpand
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Metabolic adjustments in the common carp during prolonged hypoxia
Biochemical and respiratory changes in the common carp Cyprinus carpio, were studied 6, 24, 96 and 168 h upon exposure to hypoxia (0·5 mgO2 l−1). Modification of kinetic properties ofExpand
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Five Tropical Air‐Breathing Fishes, Six Different Strategies to Defend against Ammonia Toxicity on Land*
Most tropical fishes are ammonotelic, producing ammonia and excreting it as NH3 by diffusion across the branchial epithelia. Hence, those air‐breathing tropical fishes that survive on land briefly orExpand
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Chronic and acute ammonia toxicity in mudskippers, Periophthalmodon schlosseri and Boleophthalmus boddaerti: brain ammonia and glutamine contents, and effects of methionine sulfoximine and MK801
SUMMARY The objective of this study was to elucidate if chronic and acute ammonia intoxication in mudskippers, Periophthalmodon schlosseri and Boleophthalmus boddaerti, were associated with highExpand
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  • Open Access
Environmental ammonia exposure induces oxidative stress in gills and brain of Boleophthalmus boddarti (mudskipper).
This study aimed to elucidate whether exposure to a sublethal concentration (8mmoll(-1)) of NH(4)Cl (pH 7.0) for 12 or 48h would induce oxidative stress in gills and brain of the mudskipperExpand
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Strategies for Surviving High Concentrations of Environmental Ammonia in the Swamp Eel Monopterus albus
The swamp eel Monopterus albus lives in muddy ponds, swamps, canals, and rice fields in the tropics. It encounters high concentrations of environmental ammonia (HEA) during dry seasons or duringExpand
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An investigation of the role of carbonic anhydrase in aquatic and aerial gas transfer in the African lungfish Protopterus dolloi
SUMMARY Experiments were performed on bimodally breathing African lungfish Protopterus dolloi to examine the effects of inhibition of extracellular vs total (extracellular and intracellular) carbonicExpand
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  • Open Access