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The identification of three new biosynthetic intermediates and one further biosynthetic enzyme in the clavulanic acid pathway
TLDR
Three new compounds are identified and a new amidino hydrolase, which hydrolyses 3-hydroxy-5-guanidino-2-(2-oxoazetidin-1-yl)pentanoic acid to proclavaminic acid has been characterised.
Evidence that the immediate biosynthetic precursor of clavulanic acid is its N-aldehyde analogue
(3R, 5R) Clavulanate-9-aldehyde 1 has been detected in Streptomyces clavuligerus and an NADPH dependent dehydrogenase capable of reducing 1 to clavulanic acid 2 has been isolated from this organism.
Biochemical basis of mupirocin resistance in strains of Staphylococcus aureus.
TLDR
It is concluded that the production of a modified IRS enzyme is the major cause of mupirocin resistance in the strains studied and isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase is the main source of resistance to this antibiotic.
Isolation of two novel intracellular β-lactams and a novel dioxygenase cyclising enzyme from Streptomyces clavuligerus
Two novel β-lactams, one monocyclic, the other bicyclic, and a dioxygenase enzyme which converts the former to the latter, have been isolated from the mycelium of the clavulanic acid producing
Novel microbial lipases: catalytic activity in reactions in organic media.
Clavulanic acid biosynthesis; the final steps
TLDR
The purified enzyme was shown to make clavulanic acid by reduction of the aldehydic moiety of synthetic 1 to the allylic alcohol of clavULanic acid 2.
Evidence that arginine is a later metabolic intermediate than ornithine in the biosynthesis of clavulanic acid by Streptomyces clavuligerus
The feeding of radiolabelled ornithine and arginine to mutants of Streptomyces clavuligerus auxotrophic for arginine has shown that ornithine has to be converted to arginine prior to incorporation
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