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Duplexes of 21-nucleotide RNAs mediate RNA interference in cultured mammalian cells
21-nucleotide siRNA duplexes provide a new tool for studying gene function in mammalian cells and may eventually be used as gene-specific therapeutics.
RNA interference is mediated by 21- and 22-nucleotide RNAs.
It is demonstrated that 21- and 22-nt RNA fragments are the sequence-specific mediators of RNAi, and evidence that the direction of dsRNA processing determines whether sense or antisense target RNA can be cleaved by the siRNA-protein complex is provided.
Functional anatomy of siRNAs for mediating efficient RNAi in Drosophila melanogaster embryo lysate
Duplexes of 21–23 nucleotide RNAs are the sequence‐specific mediators of RNA interference and post‐transcriptional gene silencing and mismatches in the centre of the siRNA duplex prevent target RNA cleavage, providing a rational basis for the design of siRNAs in future gene targeting experiments.
Therapeutic silencing of an endogenous gene by systemic administration of modified siRNAs
It is shown that chemically modified short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) can silence an endogenous gene encoding apolipoprotein B (apoB) after intravenous injection in mice, and it is determined that cleavage of the apoB mRNA occurred specifically at the predicted site.
Identification of essential genes in cultured mammalian cells using small interfering RNAs.
The first RNAi-induced phenotypes in mammalian cultured cells using RNA interference mediated by duplexes of 21-nt RNAs are reported, and two other lamins, B1 and B2, are now identified as essential proteins.
Sequence, chemical, and structural variation of small interfering RNAs and short hairpin RNAs and the effect on mammalian gene silencing.
RNase-protecting phosphorothioate and 2'-fluoropyrimidine RNA backbone modifications of siRNAs did not significantly affect silencing efficiency, although cytotoxic effects were observed when every second phosphate of an siRNA duplex was replaced by phosphorOTHioate.
SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccine Design Enabled by Prototype Pathogen Preparedness
A vaccine for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is needed to control the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic. Structural studies have led to the development
Transcriptional regulation by small RNAs at sequences downstream from 3' gene termini.
It is found that the promoter and 3' terminal regions of the PR locus are in close proximity, providing a potential mechanism for RNA-mediated control of transcription over long genomic distances, extending the potential for small RNAs to regulate transcription to target sequences beyond the 3' termini of mRNA.
The human 18S U11/U12 snRNP contains a set of novel proteins not found in the U2-dependent spliceosome.
U11 and U12 snRNPs bind U12-type pre-mRNAs as a preformed di-snRNP complex, simultaneously recognizing the 5' splice site and branchpoint sequence. Thus, within the U12-type prespliceosome, U11/U12