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Innate Antiviral Responses by Means of TLR7-Mediated Recognition of Single-Stranded RNA
TLDR
These results identify ssRNA as a ligand for TLR7 and suggest that cells of the innate immune system sense endosomal ssRNA to detect infection by RNA viruses.
Toll‐like receptor expression in murine DC subsets: lack of TLR7 expression by CD8α+ DC correlates with unresponsiveness to imidazoquinolines
TLDR
It is reported that mRNA for most TLR is expressed at similar levels by murine splenic DC sub‐types, including PDC, but that TLR3 is preferentially expressed by CD8α+ DC while TLR5 and TLR7 are selectively absent from the same subset, suggesting that the dichotomy in TLR expression between plasmacytoid and non‐plasmacy toid DC is not conserved between species.
Toll-like receptor 3 promotes cross-priming to virus-infected cells
TLDR
It is shown that murine CD8α+ dendritic cells are activated by double-stranded (ds)RNA present in virally infected cells but absent from uninfected cells, which indicates that TLR3 may have evolved to permit cross-priming of CTLs against viruses that do not directly infect dendedritic cells.
Nr4a1-Dependent Ly6Clow Monocytes Monitor Endothelial Cells and Orchestrate Their Disposal
TLDR
Ly6Clow monocytes are intravascular housekeepers that orchestrate the necrosis by neutrophils of endothelial cells that signal a local threat sensed via TLR7 followed by the in situ phagocytosis of cellular debris.
Viral infection switches non-plasmacytoid dendritic cells into high interferon producers
TLDR
The results suggest that multiple dendritic cell types, not just plasmacytoid cells, can act as specialized interferon-producing cells in certain viral infections, and reveal the existence of a TLR-independent pathway for d endritic cell activation that can be the target of viral interference.
Nucleic acid agonists for Toll‐like receptor 7 are defined by the presence of uridine ribonucleotides
TLDR
The results support the notion that TLR7 recognises uracil repeats in RNA and that it discriminates between viral and self ligands on the basis of endosomal accessibility rather than sequence.
Innate recognition of viruses.
  • S. Diebold
  • Biology, Medicine
    Immunology letters
  • 18 January 2010
TLDR
An overview over the different viral nucleic acid sensors and their contribution to the orchestration of anti-viral immune responses is given.
Mannose Polyethylenimine Conjugates for Targeted DNA Delivery into Dendritic Cells*
TLDR
It is demonstrated here that dendritic cells transfected with ManPEI/DNA complexes containing adenovirus particles are effective in activating T cells of T cell receptor transgenic mice in an antigen-specific fashion.
Recognition of viral single-stranded RNA by Toll-like receptors.
  • S. Diebold
  • Biology, Medicine
    Advanced drug delivery reviews
  • 29 April 2008
TLDR
There is increasing evidence that TLR-mediated recognition of mammalian ssRNA triggers innate immune activation and plays a role in autoimmunity, so the development of suitable TLR7 and TLR8 antagonists could pave the way for therapeutic intervention of particular autoimmune diseases.
Microbial Recognition Via Toll-Like Receptor-Dependent and -Independent Pathways Determines the Cytokine Response of Murine Dendritic Cell Subsets to CD40 Triggering1
TLDR
It is demonstrated that microbial and T cell-derived stimuli can synergize to induce production of high levels of IL-12 p70 or IL-10 by individual murine DC subsets but that the choice of cytokine is dictated by the microbial pattern recognition receptor engaged.
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