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Innate partnership of HLA-B and KIR3DL1 subtypes against HIV-1
The various epistatic effects observed here for common, distinct KIR3DL1 and HLA-B Bw4 combinations are unprecedented with regard to any pair of genetic loci in human disease, and indicate that NK cells may have a critical role in the natural history of HIV infection.
The end of AIDS: HIV infection as a chronic disease
HIV infection, inflammation, immunosenescence, and aging.
- S. Deeks
- Medicine, BiologyAnnual review of medicine
- 12 January 2011
Novel therapeutic strategies aimed at preventing or reversing these immunologic defects that persist despite effective suppression of HIV replication may be necessary if HIV-infected patients are to achieve normal life span.
Human immunodeficiency virus controllers: mechanisms of durable virus control in the absence of antiretroviral therapy.
Plasma levels of soluble CD14 independently predict mortality in HIV infection.
Therapeutic attenuation of innate immune activation may improve survival in patients with HIV infection and sCD14, a marker of monocyte response to LPS, is an independent predictor of mortality in HIV infection.
Dysbiosis of the Gut Microbiota Is Associated with HIV Disease Progression and Tryptophan Catabolism
- Ivan Vujkovic-Cvijin, R. Dunham, J. McCune
- Biology, MedicineScience Translational Medicine
- 10 July 2013
A link between mucosal-adherent colonic bacteria and immunopathogenesis during progressive HIV infection is apparent even in the setting of viral suppression during HAART, and this link suggests that gut-resident microbial populations may influence intestinal homeostasis during HIV disease.
T cell activation is associated with lower CD4+ T cell gains in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with sustained viral suppression during antiretroviral therapy.
Increased T cell activation was associated with shorter duration of viral suppression, hepatitis C virus coinfection, frequent low-level viremia, and lower nadir CD4(+) T cell counts.
Effect of early versus deferred antiretroviral therapy for HIV on survival.
The early initiation of antiretroviral therapy before the CD4+ count fell below two prespecified thresholds significantly improved survival, as compared with deferred therapy.
Relationship between T cell activation and CD4+ T cell count in HIV-seropositive individuals with undetectable plasma HIV RNA levels in the absence of therapy.
HIV controllers have abnormally high T cell activation levels, which may contribute to progressive CD4(+) T cell loss even without measurable viremia.
Comparative Analysis of Measures of Viral Reservoirs in HIV-1 Eradication Studies
Eleven different approaches are compared for quantitating persistent HIV-1 in 30 patients on HAART, using the original viral outgrowth assay for resting CD4+ T cells carrying inducible, replication-competent viral genomes as a standard for comparison.