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Toll-Like Receptor 3 Has a Protective Role against West Nile Virus Infection
ABSTRACT Protection against West Nile virus (WNV) infection requires rapid viral sensing and the generation of an interferon (IFN) response. Mice lacking IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) showExpand
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2′-O methylation of the viral mRNA cap evades host restriction by IFIT family members
Cellular messenger RNA (mRNA) of higher eukaryotes and many viral RNAs are methylated at the N-7 and 2′-O positions of the 5′ guanosine cap by specific nuclear and cytoplasmic methyltransferasesExpand
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Cell-Specific IRF-3 Responses Protect against West Nile Virus Infection by Interferon-Dependent and -Independent Mechanisms
Interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-3 is a master transcription factor that activates host antiviral defense programs. Although cell culture studies suggest that IRF-3 promotes antiviral control byExpand
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IPS-1 Is Essential for the Control of West Nile Virus Infection and Immunity
The innate immune response is essential for controlling West Nile virus (WNV) infection but how this response is propagated and regulates adaptive immunity in vivo are not defined. Herein, we showExpand
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Induction of IFN-β and the Innate Antiviral Response in Myeloid Cells Occurs through an IPS-1-Dependent Signal That Does Not Require IRF-3 and IRF-7
Interferon regulatory factors (IRF)-3 and IRF-7 are master transcriptional factors that regulate type I IFN gene (IFN-α/β) induction and innate immune defenses after virus infection. Prior studies inExpand
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  • Open Access
Interferon Regulatory Factor IRF-7 Induces the Antiviral Alpha Interferon Response and Protects against Lethal West Nile Virus Infection
ABSTRACT Type I interferon (IFN-α/β) comprises a family of immunomodulatory cytokines that are critical for controlling viral infections. In cell culture, many RNA viruses trigger IFN responsesExpand
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West Nile Virus Noncoding Subgenomic RNA Contributes to Viral Evasion of the Type I Interferon-Mediated Antiviral Response
ABSTRACT We previously showed that a noncoding subgenomic flavivirus RNA (sfRNA) is required for viral pathogenicity, as a mutant West Nile virus (WNV) deficient in sfRNA production replicated poorlyExpand
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Interferon Regulatory Factor-1 (IRF-1) Shapes Both Innate and CD8+ T Cell Immune Responses against West Nile Virus Infection
Interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-1 is an immunomodulatory transcription factor that functions downstream of pathogen recognition receptor signaling and has been implicated as a regulator of type IExpand
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Activation of the cytokine network and unfavorable outcome in patients with yellow fever.
To study the contribution of inflammatory mediators to the pathogenesis of yellow fever (YF), the serum levels of several cytokines and chemokines were measured in 7 patients with fatal YF (f-YF), 11Expand
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The Innate Immune Adaptor Molecule MyD88 Restricts West Nile Virus Replication and Spread in Neurons of the Central Nervous System
ABSTRACT Type I interferons (IFN-α/β) control viral infection by triggering the expression of genes that restrict transcription, translation, replication, and assembly. Many viruses induce IFNExpand
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