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Retrovirus resistance factors Ref1 and Lv1 are species-specific variants of TRIM5alpha.
Mammalian cells express several factors that act in a cell-autonomous manner to inhibit retrovirus replication. Among these are the Friend virus susceptibility factor 1/lentivirus susceptibilityExpand
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Cellular inhibitors with Fv1-like activity restrict human and simian immunodeficiency virus tropism
Many nonhuman primate cells are unable to support the replication of HIV-1, whereas others are nonpermissive for infection by simian immunodeficiency virus from macaques (SIVmac). Here, we show thatExpand
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Cyclophilin A modulates the sensitivity of HIV-1 to host restriction factors
Many mammalian species express restriction factors that confer host resistance to retroviral infection. Here we show that HIV-1 sensitivity to restriction factors is modulated by cyclophilin AExpand
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Restriction of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 by TRIM-CypA Occurs with Rapid Kinetics and Independently of Cytoplasmic Bodies, Ubiquitin, and Proteasome Activity
ABSTRACT TRIM-CypA is an owl monkey-specific variant of the retrovirus restriction factor TRIM5α. Here, we exploit its modular domain organization and cyclosporine sensitivity to probe the kineticsExpand
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Pim serine/threonine kinases regulate the stability of Socs-1 protein
Studies of SOCS-1-deficient mice have implicated Socs-1 in the suppression of JAK-STAT (Janus tyrosine kinase-signal transducers and activators of transcription) signaling and T cell development. ItExpand
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Restriction of multiple divergent retroviruses by Lv1 and Ref1
The mouse gene Fv1 encodes a saturable restriction factor that selectively blocks infection by N‐tropic or B‐tropic murine leukemia virus (MLV) strains. Despite the absence of an Fv1 gene, a similarExpand
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Species-Specific Tropism Determinants in the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Capsid
ABSTRACT Retroviral tropism is determined in part by cellular restriction factors that block infection by targeting the incoming viral capsid. Indeed, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)Expand
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Capsid-Dependent and -Independent Postentry Restriction of Primate Lentivirus Tropism in Rodent Cells
ABSTRACT Retrovirus tropism can be restricted by cellular factors such as Fv1, Ref1, and Lv1 that inhibit infection by targeting the incoming viral capsid. Here, we show that rodent cells exhibitExpand
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IL-4 signaling is regulated through the recruitment of phosphatases, kinases, and SOCS proteins to the receptor complex.
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Interferon γ Signaling Alters the Function of T Helper Type 1 Cells
One mechanism regulating the ability of different subsets of T helper (Th) cells to respond to cytokines is the differential expression of cytokine receptors. For example, Th2 cells express bothExpand
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