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Pyrrolizidine alkaloid plants, metabolism and toxicity.
TLDR
Current information on the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and molecular mechanisms of PA toxicity is reviewed with an emphasis on the development of better diagnostics, pyrrole kinetics, and the effects of low dose PA exposure.
Solid-phase extraction and HPLC-MS profiling of pyrrolizidine alkaloids and their N-oxides: a case study of Echium plantagineum.
TLDR
The present case study of Echium plantagineum highlighted a higher ratio of N-oxides to the parent tertiary bases than has been previously reported, and a higher proportion of acetylated pyrrolizidine-N-oxide was observed in the flower heads relative to the leaves.
Improved method for extraction and LC-MS analysis of pyrrolizidine alkaloids and their N-oxides in honey: application to Echium vulgare honeys.
TLDR
Of several variations of the solid-phase extraction method assessed in this study, the best combination for generic use involved the dilution of honey with 0.05 M sulfuric acid and the subsequent application of the centrifuged solution to solid- phases extraction columns at the rate of a maximum of 10 g of honey per solid- phase extraction column.
Hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids in pollen and drying-related implications for commercial processing of bee pollen.
TLDR
The results strongly indicate a need for monitoring pollen supplies intended for human consumption, at least until conditions for processing and/or selection are clearly defined such as to significantly reduce the hepatotoxic (and potentially carcinogenic and genotoxic) pyrrolizidine alkaloid content of bee pollen.
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in food: a spectrum of potential health consequences
TLDR
Growing recognition of hazardous levels of dehydroPAs in a range of common foods suggests that physicians and clinicians need to be alert to the possibility that these contaminants may, in some cases, be a possible cause of chronic diseases such as cirrhosis, pulmonary hypertension and cancer in humans.
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids of Echium vulgare honey found in pure pollen.
TLDR
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids and/or their N-oxides were isolated from the aqueous acid extracts of pollen by use of strong cation-exchange, solid-phase extraction and identified by liquid chromatographic/mass spectrometric (LCMS) analysis.
Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids: Potential Role in the Etiology of Cancers, Pulmonary Hypertension, Congenital Anomalies, and Liver Disease.
TLDR
This Perspective provides a comprehensive review of the acute and chronic toxicity of 1,2-dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids and their potential to initiate certain chronic diseases, and suggests some associative considerations or indicators to assist in recognizing specific cases of diseases that may have resulted from dietary exposure to these hazardous natural substances.
Pyrrolizidine alkaloid toxicity in livestock: a paradigm for human poisoning?
TLDR
The potential for better control of exposure and means of monitoring dehydroPA intake by extrapolation of knowledge gained from animal studies to the human situation is examined, possibly leading to progressive, chronic diseases that may not include overt hepatotoxicity.
Solid-phase extraction and LC-MS analysis of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in honeys.
TLDR
A limited survey of 63 preprocessing samples of honey demonstrated levels of pyrrolizidine alkaloids up to approximately 2000 parts per billion in a sample attributed to Echium plantagineum and Heliotropium europaeum.
Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids, including monoesters with an unusual esterifying acid, from cultivated Crotalaria juncea (Sunn Hemp cv.'Tropic Sun').
TLDR
Comprehensive spectrometric and spectroscopic analysis enabled elucidation of the unknown alkaloids as diastereoisomers of isohemijunceine, a monoester of retronecine with an unusual necic acid to improve soil condition, help control erosion, suppress weeds, and reduce soil nematodes.
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