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Evaluating alternative hypotheses for the early evolution and diversification of ants
The largest ant molecular phylogenetic data set published to date is generated, containing ≈6 kb of DNA sequence from 162 species representing all 20 ant subfamilies and 10 aculeate outgroup families, and casts strong doubt on the existence of a poneroid clade as currently defined.
Major evolutionary transitions in ant agriculture
  • T. Schultz, S. Brady
  • Biology, Medicine
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • 8 April 2008
This work reconstructs the major evolutionary transitions that produced the five distinct agricultural systems of the fungus-growing ants, the most well studied of the nonhuman agriculturalists, with reference to the first fossil-calibrated, multiple-gene, molecular phylogeny that incorporates the full range of taxonomic diversity within the fungi-growing ant tribe Attini.
The history of early bee diversification based on five genes plus morphology
This work reconstructed a robust phylogeny of bees at the family and subfamily levels using a data set of five genes (4,299 nucleotide sites) plus morphology (109 characters) and suggested an African origin for bees, because the earliest branches of the tree include predominantly African lineages.
The evolution of myrmicine ants: phylogeny and biogeography of a hyperdiverse ant clade (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)
A robust phylogeny is recovered that reveals six major clades of Myrmicinae, here treated as newly defined tribes and occurring as a pectinate series: Myrmicini, Pogonomyrmecini trib.n.
Evolution of the army ant syndrome: The origin and long-term evolutionary stasis of a complex of behavioral and reproductive adaptations
  • S. Brady
  • Biology, Medicine
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
  • 15 May 2003
Results strongly indicate that the suite of behavioral and reproductive adaptations found in army ants throughout the world is inherited from a unique common ancestor, and did not evolve convergently in the New World and Old World as previously thought.
Phylogenomic Insights into the Evolution of Stinging Wasps and the Origins of Ants and Bees
There is unequivocal evidence that ants are the sister group to bees+apoid wasps (Apoidea) and that bees are nested within a paraphyletic Crabronidae, and that taxon choice can fundamentally impact tree topology and clade support in phylogenomic inference.
Phylogeny and biogeography of dolichoderine ants: effects of data partitioning and relict taxa on historical inference.
The evolutionary history of a major clade of ants, the subfamily Dolichoderinae, is investigated, indicating that crown-group dolichoderines arose about 65 million years ago, although this was preceded by a substantial period (30 million years) of stem group evolution.
Single-copy nuclear genes recover cretaceous-age divergences in bees.
The results indicate that each of the four subfamilies arose well before the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary and suggest that the early radiation of halictid bees involved substantial African-South American interchange roughly coincident with the separation of these two continents in the late Cret Jurassic.
The rise of army ants and their relatives: diversification of specialized predatory doryline ants
The phylogenetic analyses provide only weak support for army ant monophyly and call into question a previous hypothesis that army ants underwent a fundamental split into New World and Old World lineages, which provides a basic framework for comparative biological analyses.
Error, bias, and long-branch attraction in data for two chloroplast photosystem genes in seed plants.
Sequences of two chloroplast photosystem genes, psaA and psbB, together comprising about 3,500 bp, were obtained for all five major groups of extant seed plants and several outgroups among other vascular plants, and phylogenetic signals were obtained in parsimony analyses from partitions of the data into first and second codon positions versus third positions.