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BDNF from microglia causes the shift in neuronal anion gradient underlying neuropathic pain
Neuropathic pain that occurs after peripheral nerve injury depends on the hyperexcitability of neurons in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Spinal microglia stimulated by ATP contribute to tactileExpand
P2X4-Receptor-Mediated Synthesis and Release of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Microglia Is Dependent on Calcium and p38-Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Activation
Microglia in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord are increasingly recognized as being crucial in the pathogenesis of pain hypersensitivity after injury to a peripheral nerve. It is known that P2X4Expand
Different immune cells mediate mechanical pain hypersensitivity in male and female mice
A large and rapidly increasing body of evidence indicates that microglia-to-neuron signaling is essential for chronic pain hypersensitivity. Using multiple approaches, we found that microglia are notExpand
Transformation of the output of spinal lamina I neurons after nerve injury and microglia stimulation underlying neuropathic pain
BackgroundDisinhibition of neurons in the superficial spinal dorsal horn, via microglia – neuron signaling leading to disruption of chloride homeostasis, is a potential cellular substrate forExpand
Morphine hyperalgesia gated through microglia-mediated disruption of neuronal Cl− homeostasis
A major unresolved issue in treating pain is the paradoxical hyperalgesia produced by the gold-standard analgesic morphine and other opiates. We found that hyperalgesia-inducing treatment withExpand
Spinal Cord Toll-Like Receptor 4 Mediates Inflammatory and Neuropathic Hypersensitivity in Male But Not Female Mice
The innate immune system is increasingly appreciated to play an important role in the mediation of chronic pain, and one molecule implicated in this process is the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Here,Expand
Sublime Microglia: Expanding Roles for the Guardians of the CNS
Recent findings challenge the concept that microglia solely function in disease states in the central nervous system (CNS). Rather than simply reacting to CNS injury, infection, or pathology,Expand
Genetically determined P2X7 receptor pore formation regulates variability in chronic pain sensitivity
Chronic pain is highly variable between individuals, as is the response to analgesics. Although much of the variability in chronic pain and analgesic response is heritable, an understanding of theExpand
P2X4R+ microglia drive neuropathic pain
Neuropathic pain, the most debilitating of all clinical pain syndromes, may be a consequence of trauma, infection or pathology from diseases that affect peripheral nerves. Here we provide a frameworkExpand
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor from microglia: a molecular substrate for neuropathic pain.
One of the most significant advances in pain research is the realization that neurons are not the only cell type involved in the etiology of chronic pain. This realization has caused a radical shiftExpand