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Secreted Bacterial Effectors That Inhibit Host Protein Synthesis Are Critical for Induction of the Innate Immune Response to Virulent Legionella pneumophila
TLDR
These results provide a striking illustration of how the host immune response to a virulent pathogen can also be shaped by pathogen-encoded activities, such as inhibition of host protein synthesis.
Targeting eEF1A by a Legionella pneumophila effector leads to inhibition of protein synthesis and induction of host stress response
TLDR
This work demonstrates that a protein, called SidI, is a substrate of the Dot/Icm type IV protein transporter that targets the host protein translation process and indicates that inhibition of host protein synthesis by specific effectors contributes to the induction of stress response in L. pneumophila‐infected cells.
Inhibition of Host Vacuolar H+-ATPase Activity by a Legionella pneumophila Effector
TLDR
This report describes the identification and characterization of a Legionella protein termed SidK that specifically targets host v-ATPase, the multi-subunit machinery primarily responsible for organelle acidification in eukaryotic cells, and shows that a domain located in the N-terminal portion of SidK is responsible for its interactions with VatA.
Legionella pneumophila inhibits macrophage apoptosis by targeting pro-death members of the Bcl2 protein family
TLDR
SidF, one substrate of the Dot/Icm transporter, is involved in the inhibition of infected cells from undergoing apoptosis to allow maximal bacterial multiplication and constitutes a mechanism for L. pneumophila to protect host cells from apoptosis.
Identification of Coxiella burnetii Type IV Secretion Substrates Required for Intracellular Replication and Coxiella-Containing Vacuole Formation
TLDR
Results indicate that C. burnetii encodes a large repertoire of T4SS substrates that play integral roles in host cell subversion and CCV formation and suggest less redundancy in effector function than has been found in the comparative Legionella Dot/Icm model.
Large-scale identification and translocation of type IV secretion substrates by Coxiella burnetii
TLDR
A shuttle plasmid is developed that allows the expression of recombinant proteins in C. burnetii as TEM fusion products and it is demonstrated that a Dot/Icm substrate identified with L. pneumophila was also translocated by C. burningetii in a process that requires its C terminus, providing direct genetic evidence of a functional T4SS in the bacterium.
Comprehensive Identification of Protein Substrates of the Dot/Icm Type IV Transporter of Legionella pneumophila
TLDR
Sequence analysis of the C-termini of these identified proteins revealed that Lpg2844, which contains few features known to be important for Dot/Icm-dependent protein transfer can be translocated at a high efficiency.
An in vivo gene deletion system for determining temporal requirement of bacterial virulence factors
TLDR
A Cre/loxP-based genetic system was reported that allowed inducible deletion of specific bacterial genes after the pathogen had been phagocytosed by host cells and found that deletion of single essential dot/icm genes did not prevent the internalized bacteria from completing one cycle of intracellular replication.
Patho-biochemical studies on hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity on Patho-biochemical studies on hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity on exposure to chlorpyrifos and imidacloprid in layer chickens
The hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity of chlorpyrifos (CPF) and imidacloprid (IMC) insecticides were The hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity of chlorpyrifos (CPF) and imidacloprid (IMC) insecticides
Improved Antimicrobial Properties of Methylene Blue Attached to Silver Nanoparticles.
TLDR
The proposed photosensitizing agent made from mixture of Silver Nanoparticles and Methylene Blue was found to possess higher antimicrobial activity and thus were more effective in killing both Gram -positive and Gram-negative bacteria in comparison to individual exposure of MB and Ag NPs.
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