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Activation of the ERK/MAPK pathway: a signature genetic defect in posterior fossa pilocytic astrocytomas
We report genetic aberrations that activate the ERK/MAP kinase pathway in 100% of posterior fossa pilocytic astrocytomas, with a high frequency of gene fusions between KIAA1549 and BRAF among theseExpand
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Definition of disease-risk stratification groups in childhood medulloblastoma using combined clinical, pathologic, and molecular variables.
PURPOSE Medulloblastomas are heterogeneous and include relatively good-prognosis tumors characterized by Wnt pathway activation, as well as those that cannot be successfully treated with conventionalExpand
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Mutation of genes affecting the RAS pathway is common in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Deregulation of the RAS-RAF-mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK)-ERK signaling cascade is often caused by somatic mutations in genes encodingExpand
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Novel molecular subgroups for clinical classification and outcome prediction in childhood medulloblastoma: a cohort study
Summary Background International consensus recognises four medulloblastoma molecular subgroups: WNT (MBWNT), SHH (MBSHH), group 3 (MBGrp3), and group 4 (MBGrp4), each defined by their characteristicExpand
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High frequency of polyandry in a lek mating system
The adaptive significance of polyandry by female birds in the absence of direct benefits remains unclear. We determined the frequencies of polyandrous mating and multiple paternity in the ruff, aExpand
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The structure and development of foredunes on a locally prograding coast: Insights from ground-penetrating radar surveys, Norfolk, UK
The internal structure of coastal foredunes from three sites along the north Norfolk coast has been investigated using ground-penetrating radar (GPR), which provides a unique insight into theExpand
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Migration of parabolic dunes at Aberffraw, Anglesey, north Wales
Abstract Aberffraw is a 1-km-wide and 3-km-long transgressive dunefield that extends inland along a northeast–southwest-trending valley from a southwest-facing beach, Traeth Mawr. The prevailing windExpand
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Combined MYC and P53 Defects Emerge at Medulloblastoma Relapse and Define Rapidly Progressive, Therapeutically Targetable Disease
Summary We undertook a comprehensive clinical and biological investigation of serial medulloblastoma biopsies obtained at diagnosis and relapse. Combined MYC family amplifications and P53 pathwayExpand
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Medulloblastoma Down Under 2013: a report from the third annual meeting of the International Medulloblastoma Working Group
Medulloblastoma is curable in approximately 70 % of patients. Over the past decade, progress in improving survival using conventional therapies has stalled, resulting in reduced quality of life dueExpand
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Perceptions, experiences and needs of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Aims To understand the perceptions, needs and experiences of patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. Background Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive interstitial lung disease, with aExpand
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