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The rice Xa21 gene confers resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae in a race-specific manner. Analysis of the inheritance patterns and resistance spectra of transgenic plants carrying six Xa21 gene family members indicated that one member, designated Xa21D, displayed a resistance spectrum identical to that observed for Xa21 but conferred only partial(More)
Central sensitization is a crucial mechanism underlying the increased excitability of nociceptive pathways following peripheral tissue injury and inflammation. We have previously demonstrated that the small-fiber excitant and inflammatory irritant mustard oil (MO) applied to the tooth pulp produces glutamatergic- and purinergic-dependent central(More)
The 5.67-megabase genome of the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 consists of a circular chromosome, a linear chromosome, and two plasmids. Extensive orthology and nucleotide colinearity between the genomes of A. tumefaciens and the plant symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti suggest a recent evolutionary divergence. Their similarities include(More)
Bovine Kir7.1 clones were obtained from a retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)-subtracted cDNA library. Human RPE cDNA library screening resulted in clones encoding full-length human Kir7.1. Northern blot analysis indicated that bovine Kir7.1 is highly expressed in the RPE. Human Kir7.1 channels were expressed in Xenopus oocytes and studied using the(More)
Previous studies from this laboratory have demonstrated that prenatal damage to vibrissae follicles results in significant increases in the brainstem representations of the remaining vibrissae as demonstrated by staining for the mitochondrial enzyme cytochrome oxidase (CO). Because CO is primarily a postsynaptic marker, these results do not directly address(More)
In the Drosophila leg disc, wingless (wg) and decapentaplegic (dpp) are expressed in a ventral-anterior and dorsal-anterior stripe of cells, respectively. This pattern of expression is essential for proper limb development. While the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway regulates dpp and wg expression in the anterior-posterior (A/P) axis, mechanisms specifying their(More)
The Cf-9 resistance (R) gene from tomato confers resistance to the fungal pathogen Cladosporium fulvum expressing the corresponding, pathogen-derived avirulence gene product Avr9. To understand how an initial R/Avr recognition event is transmitted and triggers the induction of plant defenses, we investigated early Avr9/Cf-9-dependent activation of protein(More)
mRNA decapping is a common step shared between two important mRNA decay pathways in yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To investigate how mRNAs are decapped, we have developed an assay that can be easily used to measure the decapping activity. This assay has been used to isolate yeast strains with altered decapping activities. The results demonstrated that(More)
The morphological relationship between sensory and sympathetic nerves was studied in tissues of the eye and the oral cavity following chronic sympathetic or sensory denervation. Immunoreactivities for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) were used as indexes to assess the changes of the two nerve populations after(More)