Learn More
Hypersensitive response (HR), a form of programmed cell death, is frequently associated with plant disease resistance. It has been proposed that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades regulate HR cell death based on pharmacological studies by using kinase inhibitors. However, direct evidence is lacking. Here, we demonstrate that NtMEK2, a MAPK(More)
The Arabidopsis genome encodes approximately 20 different mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) that are likely to be involved in growth, development and responses to endogenous and environmental cues. Several plant MAPKs are activated by a variety of stress stimuli, including pathogen infection, wounding, temperature, drought, salinity, osmolarity, UV(More)
It has been demonstrated that both salicylic acid and fungal elicitors activate a 48-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase termed salicylic acid-induced protein kinase (SIPK) in tobacco suspension cells. Here, we show that infiltration of these agents into tobacco leaves also activates SIPK. Of particular interest, infiltration of water alone activated a(More)
Salicylic acid-induced protein kinase (SIPK) and wounding-induced protein kinase (WIPK), two distinct members of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family, are activated in tobacco resisting infection by tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). WIPK activation by TMV depends on the disease-resistance gene N because infection of susceptible tobacco not carrying(More)
The ability to detect errors and adjust behavior accordingly is essential for maneuvering in an uncertain environment. Errors are particularly prone to occur when multiple, conflicting responses are registered in a situation that requires flexible behavioral outputs. Previous studies have provided evidence indicating the importance of the medial cortical(More)
The stress-activated p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase defines a subgroup of the mammalian MAP kinases that appear to play a key role in regulating inflammatory responses. Co-expression of constitutively active forms of Rac and Cdc42 leads to activation of p38 while dominant negative Rac and Cdc42 inhibit the ability of interleukin-1 to increase(More)
We have identified recessive overproliferation mutations by screening and examining clones of mutant cells in genetic mosaics of the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster. This type of screen provides a powerful approach for identifying and studying potential tumor suppressors. One of the identified genes, lats, has been cloned and encodes a putative protein(More)
A tobacco MAP kinase termed SIPK (Salicylic acid-Induced Protein Kinase) is activated in response to a variety of stress signals, including pathogen attack and wounding (S. Zhang and D.F. Klessig, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:7225-7230, 1998; S. Zhang and D.F. Klessig, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:7433-7438, 1998). Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we(More)
Salicylic acid (SA) plays a critical signaling role in the activation of plant defense responses after pathogen attack. We have identified several potential components of the SA signaling pathway, including (i) the H(2)O(2)-scavenging enzymes catalase and ascorbate peroxidase, (ii) a high affinity SA-binding protein (SABP2), (iii) a SA-inducible protein(More)
Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) represent an abundant group of non-coding RNAs in eukaryotes. They can be divided into guide and orphan snoRNAs according to the presence or absence of antisense sequence to rRNAs or snRNAs. Current snoRNA-searching programs, which are essentially based on sequence complementarity to rRNAs or snRNAs, exist only for the(More)