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Hypersensitive response (HR), a form of programmed cell death, is frequently associated with plant disease resistance. It has been proposed that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades regulate HR cell death based on pharmacological studies by using kinase inhibitors. However, direct evidence is lacking. Here, we demonstrate that NtMEK2, a MAPK(More)
The Arabidopsis genome encodes approximately 20 different mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) that are likely to be involved in growth, development and responses to endogenous and environmental cues. Several plant MAPKs are activated by a variety of stress stimuli, including pathogen infection, wounding, temperature, drought, salinity, osmolarity, UV(More)
The ability to control integration, inheritance, and expression of multiple transgenes is a prerequisite for manipulating biosynthetic pathways and complex agronomic characteristics in plants. One hundred and twenty-five independent transgenic rice plants were regenerated after cobombarding embryogenic tissues with a mixture of 14 different pUC-based(More)
Salicylic acid-induced protein kinase (SIPK) and wounding-induced protein kinase (WIPK), two distinct members of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family, are activated in tobacco resisting infection by tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). WIPK activation by TMV depends on the disease-resistance gene N because infection of susceptible tobacco not carrying(More)
The rice Xa21 gene confers resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae in a race-specific manner. Analysis of the inheritance patterns and resistance spectra of transgenic plants carrying six Xa21 gene family members indicated that one member, designated Xa21D, displayed a resistance spectrum identical to that observed for Xa21 but conferred only partial(More)
Opioid drugs play important roles in the clinical management of pain, as well as in the development and treatment of drug abuse. The mu opioid receptor is the primary site of action for the most commonly used opioids, including morphine, heroin, fentanyl, and methadone. By sequencing DNA from 113 former heroin addicts in methadone maintenance and 39(More)
It has been demonstrated that both salicylic acid and fungal elicitors activate a 48-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase termed salicylic acid-induced protein kinase (SIPK) in tobacco suspension cells. Here, we show that infiltration of these agents into tobacco leaves also activates SIPK. Of particular interest, infiltration of water alone activated a(More)
The ability to detect errors and adjust behavior accordingly is essential for maneuvering in an uncertain environment. Errors are particularly prone to occur when multiple, conflicting responses are registered in a situation that requires flexible behavioral outputs. Previous studies have provided evidence indicating the importance of the medial cortical(More)
The stress-activated p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase defines a subgroup of the mammalian MAP kinases that appear to play a key role in regulating inflammatory responses. Co-expression of constitutively active forms of Rac and Cdc42 leads to activation of p38 while dominant negative Rac and Cdc42 inhibit the ability of interleukin-1 to increase(More)