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Opioid drugs play important roles in the clinical management of pain, as well as in the development and treatment of drug abuse. The mu opioid receptor is the primary site of action for the most commonly used opioids, including morphine, heroin, fentanyl, and methadone. By sequencing DNA from 113 former heroin addicts in methadone maintenance and 39(More)
Hypersensitive response (HR), a form of programmed cell death, is frequently associated with plant disease resistance. It has been proposed that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades regulate HR cell death based on pharmacological studies by using kinase inhibitors. However, direct evidence is lacking. Here, we demonstrate that NtMEK2, a MAPK(More)
The Arabidopsis genome encodes approximately 20 different mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) that are likely to be involved in growth, development and responses to endogenous and environmental cues. Several plant MAPKs are activated by a variety of stress stimuli, including pathogen infection, wounding, temperature, drought, salinity, osmolarity, UV(More)
Salicylic acid-induced protein kinase (SIPK) and wounding-induced protein kinase (WIPK), two distinct members of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family, are activated in tobacco resisting infection by tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). WIPK activation by TMV depends on the disease-resistance gene N because infection of susceptible tobacco not carrying(More)
The involvement of phosphorylation/dephosphorylation in the salicylic acid (SA) signal transduction pathway leading to pathogenesis-related gene induction has previously been demonstrated using kinase and phosphatase inhibitors. Here, we show that in tobacco suspension cells, SA induced a rapid and transient activation of a 48-kD kinase that uses myelin(More)
We have identified recessive overproliferation mutations by screening and examining clones of mutant cells in genetic mosaics of the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster. This type of screen provides a powerful approach for identifying and studying potential tumor suppressors. One of the identified genes, lats, has been cloned and encodes a putative protein(More)
It has been demonstrated that both salicylic acid and fungal elicitors activate a 48-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase termed salicylic acid-induced protein kinase (SIPK) in tobacco suspension cells. Here, we show that infiltration of these agents into tobacco leaves also activates SIPK. Of particular interest, infiltration of water alone activated a(More)
The stress-activated p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase defines a subgroup of the mammalian MAP kinases that appear to play a key role in regulating inflammatory responses. Co-expression of constitutively active forms of Rac and Cdc42 leads to activation of p38 while dominant negative Rac and Cdc42 inhibit the ability of interleukin-1 to increase(More)
Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a ligand for receptors that clear remnants of chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins. Lack of apoE is, therefore, expected to cause accumulation in plasma of cholesterol-rich remnants whose prolonged circulation should be atherogenic. ApoE-deficient mice generated by gene targeting were used to test this hypothesis and to(More)
Polyploid giant cancer cells (PGCCs) have been observed by pathologists for over a century. PGCCs contribute to solid tumor heterogeneity, but their functions are largely undefined. Little attention has been given to these cells, largely because PGCCs have been generally thought to originate from repeated failure of mitosis/cytokinesis and have no capacity(More)