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Cancers arise owing to the accumulation of mutations in critical genes that alter normal programmes of cell proliferation, differentiation and death. As the first stage of a systematic genome-wide screen for these genes, we have prioritized for analysis signalling pathways in which at least one gene is mutated in human cancer. The RAS RAF MEK ERK MAP kinase(More)
Cancers arise owing to mutations in a subset of genes that confer growth advantage. The availability of the human genome sequence led us to propose that systematic resequencing of cancer genomes for mutations would lead to the discovery of many additional cancer genes. Here we report more than 1,000 somatic mutations found in 274 megabases (Mb) of DNA(More)
Researchers worldwide with information about the Kirsten ras (Ki-ras) tumour genotype and outcome of patients with colorectal cancer were invited to provide that data in a schematized format for inclusion in a collaborative database called RASCAL (The Kirsten ras in-colorectal-cancer collaborative group). Our results from 2721 such patients have been(More)
Protein kinases are frequently mutated in human cancer and inhibitors of mutant protein kinases have proven to be effective anticancer drugs. We screened the coding sequences of 518 protein kinases (approximately 1.3 Mb of DNA per sample) for somatic mutations in 26 primary lung neoplasms and seven lung cancer cell lines. One hundred eighty-eight somatic(More)
There is an increased prevalence of the 7-repeat (7R) allele of the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the population prevalence of the 7R allele varies considerably across ethnicity and is very low in Asians. To test whether this 7R allele/ADHD association still held in a Chinese clinical sample,(More)
Materials/Methods – Genomic DNA samples were obtained from cancer cell lines or from patient samples as indicated. Collection and use of patient samples were approved by the IRB of each institution in addition to the study having LREC approval locally. Cancer cell lines and clinical samples screened are given in Supplemental Tables 1 and 2, respectively.(More)
The protein-kinase family is the most frequently mutated gene family found in human cancer and faulty kinase enzymes are being investigated as promising targets for the design of antitumour therapies. We have sequenced the gene encoding the transmembrane protein tyrosine kinase ERBB2 (also known as HER2 or Neu) from 120 primary lung tumours and identified(More)
While the number of reports on macrophage infiltration of gliomas is increasing, the extent and mechanisms of macrophage recruitment remain unclear. To investigate whether monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) plays a role in this process, in situ hybridisation (ISH) was performed for 22 glioblastomas (GBM), 1 anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) and 4 grade II(More)
Gastric cancer is the world's second most common cause of cancer death. We analyzed gene expression patterns in 90 primary gastric cancers, 14 metastatic gastric cancers, and 22 nonneoplastic gastric tissues, using cDNA microarrays representing approximately 30,300 genes. Gastric cancers were distinguished from nonneoplastic gastric tissues by(More)
BACKGROUND Activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) through mutational inactivation of PTEN tumour suppressor gene is common in diverse cancer types, but rarely reported in gastric cancer. Recently, mutations in PIK3CA, which encodes the p110alpha catalytic subunit of PI3K, have been identified in various human cancers, including 3 of 12(More)