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Vertebrate photoreceptors release neuro-transmitter substance(s) tonically in the dark and this release is curtailed by light. Recently, we have become increasingly aware of the possibility that short- and long-wavelength visual signals are mediated differently during the synaptic transmission to second-order retinal neurons. The experiment described here(More)
Cone-driven external H1 horizontal cells (H1 HCs) in the cyprinid fish retina hyperpolarize in response to all visible lights, and their synaptic inputs have been widely believed to be excitatory. Recent experiments indicate, however, that short- and long-λ, (wavelength)-sensitive cone photoreceptors have different types of synaptic mechanisms; a(More)
Light-induced changes in the input resistance (Rin) of external, luminosity (i.e. H1) type horizontal cell (HC) perikarya were studied by the bridge-balance method in light-adapted and dark-adapted retinae of carp. Changes in input resistance (delta Rin) induced by short-(460 nm) and long-wavelength (674 nm) flashes, adjusted in intensity to elicit(More)
The spectral characteristics of cone-driven horizontal cells of H1 subtype (H1 HCs) receiving main synaptic input from red-sensitive cones were studied in light- and dark-adapted retinae of carp. The spectral sensitivity profile of H1 HCs in dark-adapted retinae was practically the same as the absorption spectrum of red-sensitive cones. Light-adaptation(More)
Chromatic aspects of receptive field size in the H1 horizontal cell syncytium of the carp retina were investigated using spectral photostimuli (blue or red) presented in the form of either a pair of a small spot and annulus, or a narrow moving slit. In the light-adapted retina, the receptive field for the blue stimulus was found to be significantly smaller(More)
Human HRD1 and SEL1 are components of endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD), which is a retrograde transport mechanism from the ER to the cytosol for removing unfolded proteins. The expression of HRD1 and SEL1 was induced by ER stress-inducing agents and overexpression of both ER stress-responsive transcription factors, ATF6 and XBP1.(More)
The method of "voltage clamp by light" was applied to measure spectral sensitivities of second-order visual neurons, namely L- and R/G-type horizontal cells in the carp retina. The present equipment employs (i) a ceramic photomodulator to facilitate a fast servomechanical control of retinal illuminance, (ii) an electronic circuit to compensate for the(More)
Despite the phylogenic and structural differences, the visual systems of different species, whether vertebrate or invertebrate, share certain functional properties. The center-surround opponent receptive field (CSRF) mechanism represents one such example. Here, analogous CSRFs are shown to be formed in an artificial neural network which learns to localize(More)