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Adiponectin (Ad) is a hormone secreted by adipocytes that regulates energy homeostasis and glucose and lipid metabolism. However, the signaling pathways that mediate the metabolic effects of Ad remain poorly identified. Here we show that phosphorylation and activation of the 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) are stimulated with globular and full-length(More)
Adiponectin is a novel, adipose-specific protein abundantly present in the circulation, and it has antiatherogenic properties. We analyzed the plasma adiponectin concentrations in age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched nondiabetic and type 2 diabetic subjects with and without coronary artery disease (CAD). Plasma levels of adiponectin in the diabetic(More)
G proteins of the Ras family function as molecular switches in many signalling cascades; however, little is known about where they become activated in living cells. Here we use FRET (fluorescent resonance energy transfer)-based sensors to report on the spatio-temporal images of growth-factor-induced activation of Ras and Rap1. Epidermal growth factor(More)
BACKGROUND Among the many adipocyte-derived endocrine factors, we recently found an adipocyte-specific secretory protein, adiponectin, which was decreased in obesity. Although obesity is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, the molecular basis for the link between obesity and vascular disease has not been fully clarified. The(More)
The authors estimated abdominal fat distribution on the basis of measurements at computed tomography (CT). The attenuation range for fat tissue was defined as the interval within the mean plus or minus 2 SDs considered to be individual variation. Fat areas found with this method were closely correlated with those obtained by means of the computed(More)
We identified a zebrafish homologue of Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1), which was previously identified in Xenopus as a Wnt inhibitor with potent head-inducing activity. Zebrafish dkk1 is expressed in the dorsal marginal blastoderm and also in the dorsal yolk syncytial layer after mid-blastula transition. At later blastula stages, the expression expands to the entire(More)
BACKGROUND Among the many adipocyte-derived endocrine factors, we found an adipocyte-derived plasma protein, adiponectin, that was decreased in obesity. We recently demonstrated that adiponectin inhibited tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced expression of endothelial adhesion molecules and that plasma adiponectin level was reduced in patients(More)
The major components of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are MAPK, MAPK kinase (MAPKK), and MAPKK kinase (MAPKKK). Recent rapid progress in identifying members of MAPK cascades suggests that a number of such signaling pathways exist in cells. To date, however, how the specificity and efficiency of the MAPK cascades is maintained is(More)
Parasporal inclusion proteins from a total of 1744 Bacillus thuringiensis strains, consisting of 1700 Japanese isolates and 44 reference type strains of existing H serovars, were screened for cytocidal activity against human leukaemia T cells and haemolytic activity against sheep erythrocytes. Of 1684 B. thuringiensis strains having no haemolytic activity,(More)
We report that a novel sulfonylamino compound, 4-[2-(phenylsulfonylamino)ethylthio]-2,6-difluoro-phenoxyacetam ide (PEPA), selectively potentiates glutamate receptors of the AMPA subtype. PEPA (1-200 microM) dose dependently potentiated glutamate-evoked currents in Xenopus oocytes expressing AMPA (GluRA-GluRD), but not kainate (GluR6 and GluR6+KA2) or NMDA(More)