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The DNAs from 217 Japanese males with congenital red/green color-vision deficiencies were analyzed. Twenty-three subjects had the normal genotype of a single red gene, followed by a green gene. Four of the 23 were from the 69 protan subject group and 19 of the 23 were from the 148 deutan subject group. Three of the 23 subjects had missense mutations. The(More)
PURPOSE Congenital color-vision deficiencies are frequent among males, 4.7-8.0%, suggesting that female carriers are present at a frequency of 9-15%. The purpose of this study was to determine whether carriers could be detected by analysis of the visual pigment genes. METHODS DNA from 29 males with congenital color-vision deficiencies, from their mothers,(More)
Critical duration in visual acuity testing can be viewed as an expression of temporal integration in the human visual system. We examined this phenomenon in 13 eyes with central serous retinopathy (CSR) and 6 eyes with macular edema, by measuring visual acuity at several limited exposure times. The results were then compared with those for 17 normal eyes.(More)
We studied 247 Japanese males with congenital deutan color-vision deficiency and found that 37 subjects (15.0%) had a normal genotype of a single red gene followed by a green gene(s). Two of them had missense mutations in the green gene(s), but the other 35 subjects had no mutations in either the exons or their flanking introns. However, 32 of the 35(More)
The L-cone/M-cone visual pigment gene arrays were analyzed in 125 Japanese males with protan color-vision deficiency. Arrays were successfully determined in 62/65 subjects with protanopia and 57/60 protanomaly subjects. Among the 62 protanopia subjects, 48 (77%) had an array consisting of a single 5' L-M hybrid gene (PS-array) or a 5' L-M hybrid gene(More)
PURPOSE We analyzed the red/green visual pigment genes in color-normal Japanese men to understand the relationship between color anomalies and genetic defects. METHODS DNA from 120 color-normal Japanese men was subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplification for exons 2-5 of the red/green visual pigment genes and the PCR products were(More)
The L-cone/M-cone visual pigment gene arrays were analyzed in a group of 63 Japanese females consisting of 7 applicants for examination of their carrier status, 14 color-deficient females, 6 obligate carriers with no genotypic data available for affected father or sons, and 36 color-normals. The first and the downstream genes, the entire region from the(More)
We have analyzed L/M visual pigment gene arrays in 119 Japanese men with protanopia color vision defect and found that five had a normal gene order of L-M. Among the five men, two (identified as A376 and A642) had apparently normal L genes. To clarify their L gene defect, the whole L or M gene from A376 and control subjects was cloned in an expression(More)
PURPOSE The human cone photoreceptor cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channel comprises alpha- and beta-subunits, which are respectively encoded by hCNGA3 and hCNGB3. The purpose was to examine the functional role of hCNGB3 in modulation of human cone CNG channels and to characterize functional consequences of rod monochromacy-associated mutations in hCNGB3(More)
Thirty-nine missense mutations, which had been identified in rod monochromacy or related disorders, in the CNGA3 subunit of cone photoreceptor cGMP-gated channels were analyzed. HEK293 cells were transfected with cDNA of the human CNGA3 subunit harboring each of these mutations in an expression vector. Patch-clamp recordings demonstrated that 32 of the 39(More)