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We demonstrate the trapping of single 20 and 40 nm polystyrene spheres at the cleaved end of a fiber optic with a double nanohole aperture in gold and without any microscope optics. An optical transmission increase of 15% indicates a trapping event for the 40 nm particle, and the jump is 2% for the 20 nm particle. This modular technique can be used to(More)
THERMUS is a package of C++ classes and functions allowing statistical-thermal model analyses of particle production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions to be performed within the ROOT framework of analysis. Calculations are possible within three statistical ensembles; a grand-canonical treatment of the conserved charges B, S and Q, a fully canonical(More)
Hadron yields in high energy heavy ion collisions have been fitted and reproduced by thermal models using standard statistical distributions. These models give insight into the freeze-out conditions at varying beam energies. In this paper we investigate changes to this analysis when the statistical distributions are replaced by Tsallis distributions for(More)
Excitons, bound electron-hole pairs, possess distinct physical properties from free electrons and holes that can be employed to improve the performance of optoelectronic devices. In particular, the signatures of excitons are enhanced optical absorption and radiative emission. These characteristics could be of major benefit for the laser cooling of(More)
The present status of the thermal model is reviewed and the recently discovered sharp peak in the K + /π + ratio is discussed in this framework. It is shown that the rapid change is related to a transition from a baryon dominated hadronic gas to a meson dominated one. Further experimental tests to clarify the nature of the transition are discussed. In the(More)
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been utilized in a rapidly growing number of clinical and scientific applications. In particular, swept source OCT (SS-OCT) has attracted many attentions due to its excellent performance. So far however, the limitations of existing photon detectors have prevented achieving shot-noise-limited sensitivity without using(More)
The recently discovered sharp peak in the excitation function of the K + /π + ratio around 30 A GeV in relativistic heavy-ion collisions is discussed in the framework of the Statistical Model. In this model, the freeze-out of an ideal hadron gas changes from a situation where baryons dominate to one with mainly mesons. This transition occurs at a(More)
The final state in heavy-ion collisions has a higher degree of strangeness saturation than the one produced in collisions between elementary particles like p − p or p − ¯ p. A systematic analysis of this phenomenon is made for C − C, Si − Si and P b − P b collisions at the CERN SPS collider and for Au − Au collisions at RHIC and at AGS energies. Strangeness(More)