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AIMS The study measured the prevalence of eye diseases in primary school children between 7 and 19 years of age in a rural area of Tanzania, and investigated whether teachers could successfully provide the first component of a school eye screening service. METHODS Teachers from each of three primary schools in Mwanza Region tested visual acuity using a(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS The prevalence of significant refractive errors and other eye diseases was measured in 2511 secondary school students aged 11-27 years in Mwanza City, Tanzania. Risk factors for myopia were explored. METHODS A questionnaire assessed the students' socioeconomic background and exposure to near work followed by visual acuity assessment and a(More)
PURPOSE To compare whether free spectacles or only a prescription for spectacles influences wearing rates among Tanzanian students with un/undercorrected refractive error (RE). METHODS DESIGN Cluster randomised trial. SETTING 37 secondary schools in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. PARTICIPANTS Distance visual acuity was measured in 6,904 year-1 students(More)
PURPOSE To compare the cost and effectiveness of three cycloplegic agents among Nigerian children. METHODS Two hundred thirty-three children aged 4 to 15 years attending outpatient eye clinics in Nigeria were randomized to (1) 1% cyclopentolate, (2) 1% cyclopentolate and 0.5% tropicamide, or (3) 1% atropine drops in each eye (instilled at home over 3(More)
AIM To investigate the prevalence and causes of optic neuropathy, reported as epidemic in 1997, among secondary school students in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. PATIENTS AND METHODS First year students (n = 10,892) from 63 secondary schools located within 30 km from the base hospital were interviewed and had a visual acuity (VA) screening test. Students(More)
PURPOSE Screening school students for refractive errors is a component of many primary eye care programs. In 2004 a trial of two approaches of spectacle-delivery to Tanzanian secondary school students found that only one third of students were using their spectacles at three months. Barriers to spectacle use were investigated using questionnaires and focus(More)
BACKGROUND Although the benefits of vision screening seem intuitive, the value of such programmes in junior and senior schools has been questioned. In addition to this there exists a lack of clarity regarding the optimum age, and frequency at which to carry out screening. OBJECTIVES The objective of this review is to evaluate the effectiveness of vision(More)
We propose a two algorithms for computation of (sharp) enclosures of definite interevals: a lor.rd adaptive dgorid~a (LAA) and a g/oba/ a&,pth~ cdgor92~n (GAA). Both algorithms are based (m Gauss-Legendre ~ladrature. Error terms are bounded using automatic differentiation in combination with interval evah:adons. Several nmnerical examples are presented;(More)
OBJECTIVE This study validates different definitions of reported night blindness (XN) in a vitamin A deficient African population with no local term for XN. DESIGN Case-control study with follow-up after treatment. SETTING Eight primary schools and health centres in rural Tanzania. SUBJECTS A total of 1214 participants were screened for reported XN(More)