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Plants are highly sensitive to temperature and can perceive a difference of as little as 1 degrees C. How temperature is sensed and integrated in development is unknown. In a forward genetic screen in Arabidopsis, we have found that nucleosomes containing the alternative histone H2A.Z are essential to perceiving ambient temperature correctly. Genotypes(More)
Plant growth and development are strongly affected by small differences in temperature. Current climate change has already altered global plant phenology and distribution, and projected increases in temperature pose a significant challenge to agriculture. Despite the important role of temperature on plant development, the underlying pathways are unknown. It(More)
At high ambient temperature, plants display dramatic stem elongation in an adaptive response to heat. This response is mediated by elevated levels of the phytohormone auxin and requires auxin biosynthesis, signaling, and transport pathways. The mechanisms by which higher temperature results in greater auxin accumulation are unknown, however. A basic(More)
Plant growth and development are defined by environmental cues. The transcription factor PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4) is the central signaling hub that integrates environmental cues, including light and temperature, to regulate growth and development. The thermosensory mechanisms controlling the PIF4-mediated temperature response, and its(More)
This protocol describes the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated nuclear transformation of a microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, using a gene construct carrying the genes coding for beta-glucuronidase (gus), green fluorescent protein (gfp), and hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt). The transformation frequency with this protocol as revealed by hygromycin(More)
Plants are a tremendous source of diverse chemicals, including many natural product-derived drugs. It has recently become apparent that the genes for the biosynthesis of numerous different types of plant natural products are organized as metabolic gene clusters, thereby unveiling a highly unusual form of plant genome architecture and offering novel avenues(More)
Incorporation of the histone variant H2A.Z into nucleosomes by the SWR1 chromatin remodeling complex is a critical step in eukaryotic gene regulation. In Arabidopsis, SWR1c and H2A.Z have been shown to control gene expression underlying development and environmental responses. Although they have been implicated in defense, the specific roles of the complex(More)
Temperature is a key seasonal signal that shapes plant growth. Elevated ambient temperature accelerates growth and developmental transitions [1] while compromising plant defenses, leading to increased susceptibility [2, 3]. Suppression of immunity at elevated temperature is at the interface of trade-off between growth and defense [2, 4]. Climate change and(More)
Plant hormone signaling involves complex transcriptional networks, where transcription factors orchestrate the control of specific gene expression. These networks include cross talk between hormone signaling pathways, and the integration of environmental signals and the developmental program. Understanding how particular transcription factors respond and(More)