Learn More
Conventional closed loop-Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) has emerged as a powerful technique for probing electric and transport phenomena at the solid-gas interface. The extension of KPFM capabilities to probe electrostatic and electrochemical phenomena at the solid-liquid interface is of interest for a broad range of applications from energy storage(More)
The development of electron and scanning probe microscopies in the second half of the twentieth century has produced spectacular images of the internal structure and composition of matter with nanometer, molecular, and atomic resolution. Largely, this progress was enabled by computer-assisted methods of microscope operation, data acquisition, and analysis.(More)
We have investigated the nanoscale switching properties of strain-engineered BiFeO(3) thin films deposited on LaAlO(3) substrates using a combination of scanning probe techniques. Polarized Raman spectral analysis indicates that the nearly tetragonal films have monoclinic (Cc) rather than P4mm tetragonal symmetry. Through local switching-spectroscopy(More)
The bismuth ferrite (BiFeO 3) material offers a comprehensive package of multifunctionality. In addition to the multiferroic behavior, i.e., coexistence of electric and magnetic orderings, [ 1 ] it also exhibits a photovoltaic effect, [ 2 ] metal-insulator transition , [ 3 ] electric modulation of conduction, [ 4 ] and terahertz radiation emission. [ 5 ](More)
Physical and structural origins of morphotropic phase boundaries (MPBs) in ferroics remain elusive despite decades of study. The leading competing theories employ either low-symmetry bridging phases or adaptive phases with nanoscale textures to describe different subsets of the macroscopic data, while the decisive atomic-scale information has so far been(More)
Elastic anomalies are signatures of phase transitions in condensed matters and have traditionally been studied using various techniques spanning from neutron scattering to static mechanical testing. Here, using band-excitation elastic/piezoresponse spectroscopy, we probed sub-MHz elastic dynamics of a tip bias-induced rhombohedral-tetragonal phase(More)
Bias-induced oxygen ion dynamics underpins a broad spectrum of electroresistive and memristive phenomena in oxide materials. Although widely studied by device-level and local voltage-current spectroscopies, the relationship between electroresistive phenomena, local electrochemical behaviors, and microstructures remains elusive. Here, the interplay between(More)
The local interplay between the ionic and electronic transport in NiO is explored using correlative imaging by first-order reversal curve measurements in current-voltage and electrochemical strain microscopy. Electronic current and electromechanical response are observed in reversible and electroforming regime. These studies provide insight into local(More)
Physical and electrochemical phenomena at the surfaces of transition metal oxides and their coupling to local functionality remains one of the enigmas of condensed matter physics. Understanding the emergent physical phenomena at surfaces requires the capability to probe the local composition, map order parameter fields and establish their coupling to(More)