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It has long been known that metamorphosis of ascidian larvae is induced by exposure to adult tunic extract or larval-conditioned seawater. However, such a natural 'inducer' has not been identified, probably due to its very low concentration in organisms. Here we have succeeded in isolating the same metamorphosis-inducing substance from the larvae, the(More)
The collective motion of bacterial cells in a shallow circular pool is systematically studied using the bacterial species Bacillus subtilis. The ratio of cell length to pool diameter (i.e., the reduced cell length) ranges from 0.06 to 0.43 in our experiments. Bacterial cells in a circular pool show various types of collective motion depending on the cell(More)
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