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The effects of fluid percussion trauma on brain interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels have been studied. In the cortex and hippocampus of control and sham-operated rats, the levels of these cytokines were very low (below 4 units/mg protein) and constant. IL-6 and IL-1 levels in the ipsilateral cortex increased rapidly(More)
The last 5 yr have witnessed significant changes in research direction and new discoveries about the mechanisms of neurodegeneration. Earlier studies on neuronal death focused on neurons, neuronal pathways, and neurotransmitters. Now similar interest is directed toward glia and vascular cells, peptides, and inflammatory processes in the brain. This research(More)
Numerous cytokines and their receptors have been identified in the brain, where they act as mediators of host defence responses and have direct effects on neuronal and glial function. Experimental tools for studying cytokine actions, their source and control of synthesis in the brain, actions and mechanisms of action will be reviewed here. In particular,(More)
Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta) has been proposed as a mediator of several forms of brain damage, including that induced by excitotoxins. In vitro studies suggest that glial cells are the effector cells of IL-1beta-mediated neurodegeneration. We have investigated the expression of IL-1beta protein by glial cells in vivo in response to NMDA receptor-mediated(More)
The cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) has been implicated in the exacerbation of ischemic damage in the brains of rodents. This study has ascertained the cellular localization and chronologic and topographic distribution of pro/mature interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) protein 0.5, 1, 2, 6, 24, and 48 hours after ischemia by subjecting rats to permanent unilateral(More)
The neuroprotective potential of eliprodil (SL 82.0715), an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist acting at the polyamine modulatory site, in brain trauma was examined in a rat model of lateral fluid-percussion brain injury. The volume of the lesion was assessed histologically by measuring, at 7 days post-injury, the area of brain damage at 10(More)
Increased expression of the cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) has been observed in rodent and human brain after injury, and IL-1 has been implicated in ischaemic and excitotoxic brain damage in the rat. These data suggest that neurodegeneration caused by brain injury may be mediated by local IL-1 production and action. This hypothesis was tested by studying the(More)
Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) participates in neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Its mechanisms of action are not fully understood, but appear to involve complex interactions between neurons and glia. The objective of this study was to determine the involvement of endogenous IL-1beta in inflammatory responses to LPS in cultured mouse glial cells, and(More)
The potential neuroprotective effects of IL-6 against the excitotoxic neuronal loss induced by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) have been studied. Infusion into the rat striatum of excitotoxic amounts (250 nmol) of NMDA resulted in a 45% decrease in striatal choline acetyl transferase activity (ChAT; a marker of cholinergic neurons) and glutamate decarboxylase(More)
In the present study we have characterized the time-course of the histopathological and biochemical alterations resulting from mechanical brain injury caused by lateral fluid percussion centered over the parietal cortex in the rat. The injury device used was an HPLC pump coupled to a solenoid valve which delivered a constant and short lasting (10 ms) impact(More)