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MicroRNAs (miR) are a class of small (f21 nucleotide) noncoding RNAs that, in general, negatively regulate gene expression. Some miRs harboring CGIs undergo methylation-mediated silencing, a characteristic of many tumor suppressor genes. To identify such miRs in liver cancer, the miRNA expression profile was analyzed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell(More)
To identify microRNAs (miRNAs) that may have a causal role in hepatocarcinogenesis, we used an animal model in which C57BL/6 mice fed choline-deficient and amino acid defined (CDAA) diet develop preneoplastic lesions at 65 weeks and hepatocellular carcinomas after 84 weeks. miRNA expression profiling showed significant upregulation of miR-181b and miR-181d(More)
5-Azacytidine- and 5-aza-deoxycytidine (5-aza-CdR)-mediated reactivation of tumor suppressor genes silenced by promoter methylation has provided an alternate approach in cancer therapy. Despite the importance of epigenetic therapy, the mechanism of action of DNA-hypomethylating agents in vivo has not been completely elucidated. Here we report that among(More)
Presenilin 1 (PSEN1) encodes the catalytic subunit of γ-secretase, and PSEN1 mutations are the most common cause of early onset familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD). In order to elucidate pathways downstream of PSEN1, we characterized neural progenitor cells (NPCs) derived from FAD mutant PSEN1 subjects. Thus, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells(More)
BACKGROUND A hallmark of cancer cells is hypermethylation of CpG islands (CGIs), which probably arises from upregulation of one or more DNA methyltransferases. The purpose of this study was to identify the targets of DNMT3B, an essential DNA methyltransferase in mammals, in colon cancer. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Chromatin immunoprecipitation with(More)
Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b are de novo DNA methyltransferases that also act as transcriptional repressors independent of methyltransferase activity. To elucidate the underlying mechanism of transcriptional repression, Dnmt3a was purified from mouse lymphosarcoma cells (P1798) by extensive fractionation on five different chromatographic matrices followed by glycerol(More)
Inhibitors of DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt) and histone deacetylases (HDAC) synergistically activate the methylated metallothionein I gene (MT-I) promoter in mouse lymphosarcoma cells. The cooperative effect of these two classes of inhibitors on MT-I promoter activity was robust following demethylation of only a few CpG dinucleotides by brief exposure to(More)
Many protocols have been designed to differentiate human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into neurons. Despite the relevance of electrophysiological properties for proper neuronal function, little is known about the evolution over time of important neuronal electrophysiological parameters in iPSC-derived neurons.(More)
Reactivation of silenced tumor suppressor genes by 5-azacytidine (Vidaza) and its congener 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (decitabine) has provided an alternate approach to cancer therapy. We have shown previously that these drugs selectively and rapidly induce degradation of the maintenance DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) 1 by a proteasomal pathway. Because the(More)
The bacterial CRISPR/Cas9 system allows sequence-specific gene editing in many organisms and holds promise as a tool to generate models of human diseases, for example, in human pluripotent stem cells. CRISPR/Cas9 introduces targeted double-stranded breaks (DSBs) with high efficiency, which are typically repaired by non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ)(More)