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Intramedullary spinal cord metastasis was thought to be rare, but the advent of MR imaging and treatment for malignancy have revealed that it is more frequent than we previously thought. We report two cases of intramedullary spinal cord metastasis from lung and rectal colon carcinoma. Their symptoms were aggravated rapidly. We performed surgical treatment(More)
The limited-memory BFGS (L-BFGS) algorithm is a popular method of solving large-scale unconstrained minimization problems. Since L-BFGS conducts a line search with the Wolfe condition, it may require many function evaluations for ill-posed problems. To overcome this difficulty , we propose a method that combines L-BFGS with the regularized Newton method.(More)
PURPOSE To elucidate whether Institute for Cancer Research (ICR) derived retinal dysfunction (IRD) 1 and IRD2 mice, spontaneous mouse models of rod-cone and rod dysfunction, respectively, develop age-related retinal degeneration. MATERIALS AND METHODS Morphological and morphometric examinations were performed in the retinas of both mutants from 1 to 18(More)
PURPOSE We developed two strains of mouse with retinal dysfunction, named the ICR-derived retinal dysfunction (IRD)1 and IRD2, from one male ICR mouse with a retinal dysfunction but a normal fundus. The purpose of this study was to describe the features of retinal dysfunction in both mutant mice. METHODS Scotopic and photopic electroretinograms (ERGs)(More)
ICR-derived retinal dysfunction (IRD) 1 and IRD2 mice are new spontaneous mouse models of rod-cone and rod dysfunctions, respectively. In this study, we investigated the cause of rod dysfunction in IRD1 and IRD2 mice. Gene expression of rod phototransduction proteins was analyzed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. mRNA levels of Gnat1, which encodes the(More)
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