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Endothelins (ET)-1, ET-2, and ET-3 are one group of cytokines likely to be released during orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). Therefore, the expression of ET levels was investigated to determine the importance and involvement of isopeptides during the several phases of OTM. Thirty-two male Wistar rats (12-13 weeks old) were divided into four groups of eight:(More)
Many chemical messengers are involved in the process of alveolar bone and periodontal ligament remodelling during orthodontic tooth movement. Among them is probably endothelin-1 (ET-1). Its role in this process has been partly explained using tezosentan, which affects endothelin A (ET(A)) and endothelin B (ET(B)) receptors. Tezosentan enhances orthodontic(More)
The aim of this study was to determine whether a force applied in an antero-posterior direction would adequately reduce incisor eruption. This is needed to achieve a constant direction of force which is one of the demands for a good model for studying orthodontic tooth movement. Twenty male Wistar rats aged 11-12 weeks were divided into two equal groups: in(More)
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