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This review of the dog, the primary nonrodent species used in toxicology, and its use in the safety evaluation of pharmaceuticals, provides data on the number used in particular projects in an effort to establish a baseline from which some minimization can be measured. Opportunities for reduction and replacement, as identified by a European Industry/Welfare(More)
Polyceratocarpus askhambryan-iringae, an endemic tree species of Annonaceae from the Udzungwa Mountains of Tanzania, is described and illustrated. The new species is identified as a member of the genus Polyceratocarpus by the combination of staminate and bisexual flowers, axillary inflorescences, subequal outer and inner petals, and multi-seeded monocarps(More)
The primary non-rodent species used in toxicology is the dog. It is generally agreed that, for ethical reasons, dog use should be reduced to the minimum consistent with maintaining the scientific quality of toxicology studies and ensuring human safety. Dog use in toxicology has been discussed widely, both from a scientific and ethical viewpoint, and there(More)
An international expert group which includes 30 organisations (pharmaceutical companies, contract research organisations, academic institutions and regulatory bodies) has shared data on the use of recovery animals in the assessment of pharmaceutical safety for early development. These data have been used as an evidence-base to make recommendations on the(More)
Multi-parametric MR image registration combines different imaging sequences to enhance visualisation and analysis. However, alignment of the different acquisitions is challenging , due to contrast-dependent anatomical information and abundant artefacts. For two decades, voxel-based registration has been dominated by methods based on mutual information,(More)
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