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Evidence about the total cost of health, absence, short-term disability, and productivity losses was synthesized for 10 health conditions. Cost estimates from a large medical/absence database were combined with findings from several published productivity surveys. Ranges of condition prevalence and associated absenteeism and presenteeism(More)
BACKGROUND Quantitative sensory testing has gained popularity as a tool in the diagnosis of peripheral neuropathies. This study aims to establish normative data of quantitative thermal and vibratory thresholds in normal subjects in Taiwan. In addition, we also examined the effect of age and gender differences on these thresholds. METHODS The study(More)
BACKGROUND Head and neck cancers are of particular interest to health care providers, their patients, and those paying for health care services, because they have a high morbidity, they are extremely expensive to treat, and of the survivors only 48% return to work. Consequently the economic burden of oral cavity, oral pharyngeal, and salivary gland cancer(More)
Plumbagin is found in many herbal plants and inhibits the growth of various bacteria. Escherichia coli strains are relatively resistant to this drug. The mechanism of resistance is not clear. Previous findings showed that plumbagin treatment triggered up-regulation of many genes in E. coli including ahpC, mdaB, nfnB, nfo, sodA, yggX and ygfZ. By analyzing(More)
On agar surface, bacterial daughter cells form a 4-cell array after the first two rounds of division, and this phenomenon has been previously attributed to a balancing of interactions among the daughter bacteria and the underneath agar. We studied further the organization and development of colony after additional generations. By confocal laser scanning(More)
The reliability of the distributed system has been an important topic of research. Agreement protocols, which allow the correct nodes to agree on a common value, have been brought up to aid the reliable execution of tasks. In previous works, fully connected networks, generalized connected networks or multicastinge components were proposed to solve the(More)
Open reading frame l0045 in the pathogenic island of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 has been predicted to encode a lytic transglycosylase that is homologous to two different gene products encoded by the same bacteria at loci away from the island. To deduce the necessity of the presence in the island, we created an l0045-deleted strain of EHEC(More)
On agar plates, daughter cells of Escherichia coli mutually slide and align side-by-side in parallel during the first round of binary fission. This phenomenon has been previously attributed to an elastic material that restricts apparently separated bacteria from being in string. We hypothesize that the interaction between bacteria and the underneath(More)
BACKGROUND Obese, older adults often have multiple chronic conditions resulting in multiple health care encounters. However, their satisfaction and experiences with care are not well understood. The objective of this study was to examine the independent impact of obesity on patient satisfaction and experiences with care in adults 65 years of age and older(More)
BACKGROUND On average, Medicare Supplement insureds take about seven unique prescription medications each year, resulting in substantial out-of-pocket drug copayments, in addition to Medicare Supplement and Part D premiums. To help alleviate this financial burden, many individuals resort to cost-saving strategies that are not trackable by Part D insurance(More)