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SIR—Jamain et al reported a frameshift and a mis sense mutation in the X-linked neuroligin 4 (NLGN4, MIM# 300427) and neuroligin 3 (NLGN3, MIM# 300336) genes, respectively, in Swedish families with autism. A frameshift mutation in NLGN4 appeared de novo in the mother, cosegregated with an affected brother with Asperger syndrome and was absent in a normal(More)
Design and analysis methods are presented for studying the association of a candidate gene with a disease by using parental data in place of nonrelated controls. This alternative design eliminates spurious differences in allele frequencies between cases and nonrelated controls resulting from different ethnic origins and population stratification for these(More)
Denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) is a novel high-capacity technique for detecting new mutations. We have evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of this method in a blind analysis of exon H of the factor IX gene and exon 16 of the neurofibromatosis type 1 gene. Under a single set of conditions for each exon, 55/55 individuals(More)
Rapid detection of single-base changes is fundamental to molecular medicine. PASA (PCR Amplification of Specific Alleles) is a rapid method of genotyping single-base changes, but one reaction is required for each allele. Bidirectional PASA (Bi-PASA) was developed to distinguish between homozygotes and heterozygotes in one PCR reaction by utilizing novel(More)
Yeast kre mutants define a pathway of cell wall (1----6)-beta-D-glucan synthesis, and mutants in genes KRE5 and KRE6 appear to interact early in such a pathway. We have cloned KRE5, and the sequence predicts the product to be a large, hydrophilic, secretory glycoprotein which contains the COOH-terminal endoplasmic reticulum retention signal, HDEL. Deletion(More)
Spontaneous mutation provides the substrate for evolution on one hand and for genetic susceptibility to disease on the other hand. X-linked diseases such as hemophilia B offer an opportunity to examine recent germ-line mutations in humans. By utilizing the direct sequencing method of genomic amplification with transcript sequencing, eight regions (2.46 kb)(More)
Previous epidemiological and biochemical studies have generated conflicting estimates of the sex ratio of mutation. Direct genomic sequencing in combination with haplotype analysis extends previous analyses by allowing the precise mutation to be determined in a given family. From analysis of the factor IX gene of 260 consecutive families with hemophilia B,(More)
Studies of association between candidate genes and disease can be designed to use cases with disease, and in place of nonrelated controls, their parents. The advantage of this design is the elimination of spurious differences due to ethnic differences between cases and nonrelated controls. However, several statistical methods of analysis have been proposed(More)