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The telencephalon has two major subdivisions, the pallium and subpallium. The pallium, which primarily consists of glutamatergic cortical structures, expresses dorsal molecular markers, whereas the subpallium, which primarily consists of the GABAergic basal ganglia, expresses ventral molecular markers. Here, we present evidence that the progenitor and(More)
We have examined the genetic mechanisms that regulate dorsal-ventral identity in the embryonic mouse telencephalon and, in particular, the specification of progenitors in the cerebral cortex and striatum. The respective roles of Pax6 and Gsh2 in cortical and striatal development were studied in single and double loss-of-function mouse mutants. Gsh2 gene(More)
The development of characteristic visceral asymmetries along the left-right (LR) axis in an initially bilaterally symmetrical embryo is an essential feature of vertebrate patterning. The allelic mouse mutations inversus viscerum (iv) and legless (lgl) produce LR inversion, or situs inversus, in half of live-born homozygotes. This suggests that the iv gene(More)
Laboratory mice bearing inactivating mutations in the genes encoding the NPAS1 and NPAS3 transcription factors have been shown to exhibit a spectrum of behavioral and neurochemical abnormalities. Behavioral abnormalities included diminished startle response, as measured by prepulse inhibition, and impaired social recognition. NPAS1/NPAS3-deficient mice also(More)
A novel murine dispersed homeobox gene, designated Gsh-2, is described. Analysis of cDNA sequence, including the full open reading frame, reveals an encoded homeodomain that is surprisingly similar to those of the Antennapedia-type clustered Hox genes. In addition, the encoded protein includes polyhistidine and polyalanine tracts, as observed for several(More)
Vertebrates have characteristic and conserved left-right (L-R) visceral asymmetries, for example the left-sided heart. In humans, alterations of L-R development can have serious clinical implications, including cardiac defects. Although little is known about how the embryonic L-R axis is established, a recent study in the chick embryo revealed L-R(More)
Mice with targeted disruptions in Hox genes have been generated to evaluate the role of the Hox complex in determining the mammalian body plan. This complex of 38 genes encodes transcription factors that specify regional information along the embryonic axes. Early in vertebrate evolution an ancestral complex shared with invertebrates was duplicated twice to(More)
Vertebrates develop distinct asymmetries along the left-right axis, which are consistently aligned with the anteroposterior and dorsoventral axes. The mechanisms that direct this handed development of left-right asymmetries have been elusive, but recent studies of mutations that affect left-right development have shed light on the molecules involved. One(More)
Lhx3 and Lhx4 (Gsh4), two closely related LIM homeobox genes, determine formation of the pituitary gland in mice. Rathke's pouch is formed in two steps-first as a rudiment and later as a definitive pouch. Lhx3 and Lhx4 have redundant control over formation of the definitive pouch. Lhx3 controls a subsequent step of pituitary fate commitment. Thereafter,(More)
The patterning of the mammalian brain is orchestrated by a large battery of regulatory genes. Here we examine the developmental function of the Gsh-2 nonclustered homeobox gene. Whole-mount and serial section in situ hybridizations have been used to better define Gsh-2 expression domains within the developing forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain. Gsh-2(More)